Seventh framework programme

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Collaborative Project

Project Acronym: SaferBraIn

Project Coordinator: CTL – Centro di Ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica –Roma (Italy)
Proposal full title: Innovative Guidelines and Tools for Vulnerable Road Users Safety in India and Brazil
Grant Agreement n°: 233994
Document Title: Evaluation of Potential Transferability to Brazil for a Selected List of Measures Driven to Promote VRU Safety from European Practices

Author: Pietrantonio, H.; Strufaldi, E. (in memoriam); support from Mormilho, G.; Nomura, M.; Zuluaga, M.E.; Quigley, C.; van der Kloof, A.; Tripodi, A.; and invited experts from Brazil

Summary: reports on the set of measures for VRU Safety selected for evaluation and the results on the assessment of their potential transferability to Brazil, particularly the City of São Paulo, based on expert´s opinions (gathered from detailed interview with one hired expert and submitted to a calibration seminar with 7 experienced professionals).

Status: Initial Version

Distribution: All Partners

Document ID: SB-FUSP-WP2_D2-1-4BR_Rev0-Potential Transferability to Brazil

Date: September 20, 2010
Project start: 1st October 2009 Duration: 30 Months

The work of our team is lovingly dedicated to the memory of Elieni Strufaldi, a person who initiated it with us (with dearly interest and happiness, we must say) but was taken from life by a blow of bad luck during a small surgery that, now we desire, it should never be done ...

Affectionately yours, Elieni.

José Alberto Quintanilha

Hugo Pietrantonio

Table of Contents

Table of Contents 3

1.Introduction 6

2.Description of positive and negative effects of VRU road safety measures 8

2.1.General Policies to Improve Safety of VRUs 9

2.1.1.Coordination and Management of Roads 10

Fostering Strong, Self-Standing National Bodies, with Attention to VRUs 10

Creating General Road Safety Policies (National Vision), with Attention to VRUs 13

Integrating Land Use and Network Planning, with Attention to VRUs 16

2.1.2.Road Accident Data Systems 20

Data Record, Storage, Process for Indicators, with Attention to VRUs 20

Data Dissemination Activities, with Attention to VRUs 24

2.1.3.Road Safety Funding (and the Role of the Insurance Industry) 27

Fund Raising for Road Safety (Road Safety Tax, Insurance Companies) to VRUs 27

2.2.Safe Planning and Design of Roads 30

2.2.1.Pedestrian Focused Measures 32

Sidewalks / Footways 33

Pedestrian Refuges / Footway Build-outs or Kerb Extensions 36

Dropped Kerbs / Tactile Paving / Other Facilities for VRUs with Disabilities 38

Zebra Crossings / Other Facilities for Pedestrian Priority without Signals 40

Pelican Crossings / Other Traditional Facilities for Pedestrian Priority with Signals 42

Puffin Crossings / Other Facilities with Technology Improvements for Pedestrians 46

School Crossing Patrols (or Patrollers) 48

Footbridges / Underpasses 50

Pedestrian Barriers and Guard-railing / Bollards 53

Lifted Pedestrian Crossings / High Visibility Pedestrian Crossings 55

2.2.2.Pedal Cycle Focused Measures 57

Bikeways / Other Exclusive Facilities, Segregated from Motorized Vehicles 57

On–road Cycle Lane and Cycle Priority in Arterial Roads 60

On–road Cycle Lanes/Routes and Cycle Priority in Non-arterial Roads 63

Shared Foot and Cycle Ways 68

Exceptions for Cyclist / Other Facilities for Cyclist Priority without Signals 70

Advanced Stop Lines (ASLs) / Other Facilities for Cyclist Priority at Signals 72

Toucan Crossings / Facilities for Crossing of Cyclists and Special Users Other than Pedestrians; 74

Bike Stands / Other Facilities for Parking Bicycles 76

2.2.3.Motor Vehicle Focused Measures that Benefit VRU Safety 79

Shared Use of Bus Lanes/Bus Ways by Motorcycles and/or Bicycles 79

Traffic Calming and Shared Spaces / Shared Roadways and Mixed Priority Routes 82

Speed Humps / Speed Cushions / Other Devices based on Vertical Deflection 84

Speed Tables / Raised or Lifted intersections 87

Chicanes / Priority Narrowing / Other Devices based on Horizontal Deflection 89

Vehicle Activated Signs (VASs) for VRU Safety 92

Road Lighting for VRU Safety 94

Safety (Speed / Red Light) Cameras / Other Electronic Enforcement Devices 96

2.3.Management of Road Safety for VRUs 98

2.3.1.Improvement of Hazardous Locations 98

Black Spot Analysis, with Attention to VRUs 99

Urban Safety Management or Other Area-wide Intervention Policies, with Attention to VRUs 101

Road Safety Audit/Road Safety Inspection / Other Preventive Reviews, with Attention to VRUs 103

2.3.2.Road Safety Education (User Needs, Participation Process, and others) 106

Education/Training for the Safety of VRUs 106

Information / Consultation / Participation for the Safety of VRUs 109

Enforcement of VRU Priority on the Road 111

3.To Summarise 113

4.References 120

5.Appendices 124

A.Evaluation for “General Policies to Improve Safety of VRUs” 125

B.Safe Planning and Design of Roads 141

B.1 Pedestrian Focused Measures 141

B.2 - Pedal Cycle Focused Measures 162

B.3 - Motor Vehicle Focused Measures that Benefit VRU Safety 179

C.Management of Road Safety for VRUs 196

List of Terms




Vulnerable Road User, at least including pedestrians and cyclists or other non-motorized users (may include motorcyclists and other users)


Advanced Stop Line, for cyclists, measure providing a waiting position in front of the vehicle queue of an approach at signalised intersection


Vehicle Activated Sign, a variable message sign system activated based in detection or other kind of sensor on or near the road


Road Safety Audit, a preventive procedure applied to the design phase of the implementation of road schemes (may include monitoring)


Road Safety Inspection, a preventive procedure applied to existing roads based on field reviews by road safety experts (similar to a RSA)


Código de Trânsito Brasileiro (Brazilian Traffic Code), the basic law setting the rules of the road and the traffic management in Brasil


Conselho Nacional de Trânsito (National Traffic Council), the maximum regulationg body in the Brazilian traffic management system


Companhia de Engenharia de Tráfego (Traffic Engineering Company), the main executive body of traffic management in the City of São Paulo




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