Political Science programa 1 – informaçÕes gerais



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Political Science

PROGRAMA

1 – INFORMAÇÕES GERAIS
Regente: Armando Marques Guedes

Ano letivo: 2015-2016

Curso (1.º ou 2.º Ciclo): 1º ciclo

Semestre: 1º semestre

ECTS: 4

Contacto do docente: amarquesguedes@gmail.com



Horário: -

2 – OBJETIVOS E COMPETÊNCIAS A ADQUIRIR

Aquisição de conhecimentos relativos aos quadros teóricos utilizados pelos especialistas da disciplina e aos estudos comummente elaborados por especialistas da área.

O foco está por via de regra colocado em questão com pertinência jurídica. O programa, como poderá ser constatado, recorre a fontes primárias; está organizado por questões/problemas abordados por especialistas; e expõe sempre posições alternativas sobre cada um dos tópicos abordados.

Os objectivos e competências a adquirir: tornar os discentes tão “fluentes” quanto possível em relação aos quadros analíticos e problemáticas aflorados pelos especialistas na área disciplinar em causa.


3 – PROGRAMA

(em Anexo; note-se que o ponto focal está sempre centrado no Estado e na suas transformações no Mundo contemporâneo)

4 – MÉTODOS DE AVALIAÇÃO

Elaboração e apresentação na aula correspondente à sessão de um curto trabalho de grupo.

Exame final, em que o trabalho apresentado é contabilizado como factor de majoração da nota final. Um maior pormenor quanto a critérios de avaliação é fornecido aos alunos no corpo do Programa, que Anexo.


5 – BIBLIOGRAFIA

(incluída, tal como os temas abordados, no Programa em Anexo, sessão por sessão)

6 – LEGISLAÇÃO

porque não se trata de uma disciplina jurídico-positiva, a Legislação aparece sempre apenas em contexto.
7 – JURISPRUDÊNCIA

porque não se trata de uma disciplina jurídico-positiva, a Jurisprudência aparece sempre apenas em contexto.

ANEXO:

POLITICAL SCIENCE

Professor Doutor Armando Marques Guedes

Nova Law, school year 2015-2016,

1st semester


CONTEMPORARY STATES AND POLITICS
As is appropriate for an introductory discipline taken at the beginning of a Law degree, our focus will be placed on both themes and concepts developed by contemporary Political Science – namely, ones related to the hybrid national and international conjunctures in which we find ourselves. The general focal theme is the one given in the title. As your aim is not to become political scientists, but rather jurists, I make no attempt to initiate you into the ‘professional mechanics’ of the subject-matters. This does not, however, signify I approach the topics with a lesser ambition: it does mean, however, that more than a mere introduction to methods and notions of Political Science, I shall endeavour to offer you a detailed take on some of the most important political issues around us in the light of the discipline. The point of application of my efforts are the modern States (whether democratic or not) and their many ongoing reconfigurations. The finality I pursue is easy to spell: to offer you a useful set of interpretations of a reality which is of the outmost interest for future jurists. I do so step by step. In every case, I introduce you to a variety of perspectives on the same themes.

Each session has a title, a summary and a bibliography. Sessions are also clustered into sets, which in turn ‘narratively’ follow each other. The aim is to make the student cognizant with much of the scope of what has been produced in the last few years that may be of interest to his or her understanding of both law and politics. I always try to do so by digging deep into basic political categories and concepts – and always dwelling into how these get tweaked by global processes of ever more robust interdependence. An interdisciplinary streak thus unavoidably permeates an effort such as this one. Understandably, particular care is taken with methodological and theoretical aspects of the discipline.

The Programme is organized into four major sections, or rather, an Introduction and three sections (I call them Parts). As noted, these follow a sequence, which is both a narrative one and one of increasing conceptual complexity. The Introduction, as it is designed for future jurists, maps out concepts and crucial notions relevant in Political Science theory; it consists of two subsets, linked to the chosen topic of the semester. The three following Parts include, in order, a series of analyses of some of the most important ‘live fronts’ of contemporary international political dynamics.
For each session there is a must-read bibliography. At the end, added a few more references which are optional. All texts listed are either available at the “photocopy house” facing the Faculty, in the Library, or freely available for download at the sites indicated.
Students will present short written papers on one of the topics of the Programme below. A final exam determines the minimal final classification obtained, which the quality of the paper presented may ameliorate. While the first six sessions of the Programme are “magisterial lectures”, the latter ones include a small presentation of the theme by selected groups of students, followed by discussions around them. In terms of Faculty rules there is an obligatory final exam. Both for the exam and the short papers that will serve as the bases for discussions in the second part of the Programme, evaluation will depend on clarity in the use of Political Science concepts used and discussed (40%), on knowledge of the examples treated (20%), and on the creativity displayed (40%).
INTRODUCTION
MODERN STATES AND THEIR TRANSFORMATIONS

THE MOVING CIRCUMSCRIPTION OF OBJECTS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE STUDIES (1)



Political Science and its objects and disciplinary borders: neighbourhoods, subsets, and contrasts. State and power. State, power and society. The various disciplinas which look at politics. Political Science and Law. Contemporary reformulations of the objects of Political Science: new political communities and frontiers.

Fukuyama, Francis (2011), The Origins of Political Order, Profile Books

Slaughter, Anne-Marie (2004), A New World Order, Princeton University Press.

Strange, Susan (2000), “The declining authority of states”, em (eds.) D. Held e A. McGrew, The Global Transformations Reader: 148-156, Polity; original 1996, capítulo 1, The Retreat of the State. The diffusion of power in the world economy, Cambridge University Press.

Held, David, et al. (1999), “The territorial state and global politics”, em D. Held, A. McGrew, D. Goldblatt, e D. Perraton, Global Transformations. Politics, Economy and Culture: 32-87, Polity Press, Cambridge.

Linklater, Andrew (1998), “The changing context of the modern State” e “Theorising the reconfiguration of political community”, em The Transformation of Political Community: 27-46, Polity, Cambridge.

Freitas do Amaral, Diogo (1990), Ciência Política, vol. 1: 25-36, ed. Autor, Lisboa.

______________(1998), História das Ideias Políticas, vol.1: 15-31, Almedina, Lisboa.

.

HISTORICAL MODELS OF BOTH FORMATION AND STRUCTURING OF POWER, THE STATE, SOVEREIGNTY AND NATIONAL FEELINGS (2)



From Empire to the Respublica Christiana to the Peace of Westphalia as a kernel to a structural change in international order. The creation of modern international society and the international state system. The historical roles of economics and power in the processes of European state formation. Decolonization and the export of the European model. Europe and the rest of the world: thinkability of nationalist feelings.

Fukuyama, Francis (2014), Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Hansen, Birthe (2002), “Globalization and European State Formation 1900-2000”, Cooperation and Conflict. Journal of the Nordic International Studies Association 37 (3): 303-321, Copenhagen.

Skinner, Quentin (1997), “The State” in Goodin, Rober & Pettit, Philip, Contemporary Political Philosophy: an anthology, Oxford: Blackwel, pp.3-27.
Zippelius, Reinhold (1997), Teoria Geral do Estado, Lisboa, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, pp. 61-118.
Tilly, Charles (1992), “Lineages of the national state”, “Six salient questions”, capítulo 5 e última secção do capítulo 6, Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990-1992: 127-161 e 187-192, Oxford, Basil Blackwell.

Anderson, Benedict (1991), Imagined Communities. Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism, Verso, London e New York.

Moreira, Adriano (1984), Ciência Política, Coimbra: Almedina, 1984, pp.137-151.

Sabine, George H (1950), A History of Political Theory, New York: Henry Holt and Company.

NATION-STATES AND COMPLEX INTERDEPENDENCE IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD (3)



Modern and post-modern states face globalization. The export and persistence of a model. The end of the Cold War and the direct and indirect challenges that spells for contemporary states. State-power transformations: limits and scopes. The news formats of power. The future of the classical “Westphalian” model. The insufficiency of traditional formulae and the emerge of new political forms with globalization.

Kaplan, Robert D., (2010), Monsoon_ The Indian Ocean and the Future of American Power, Random House, New York.

Marques Guedes, Armando (2002), “O funcionamento do Estado em época de globalização: o transbordo e as cascatas do poder”, Nação e Defesa 101, 2ª série: 99-137, Instituto de Defesa Nacional, Lisboa.

Wolf, Martin (2001), “Will the nation-state survive globalization?”, Foreign Affairs 80, 1: 178-191, New York.

Mann, Michael (1999, original 1997), “Has globalization ended the rise and rise of the nation-state?”, em (ed.) T. V. Paul e J. A Hall, International Order and the Future of World Politics: 237-262, Cambridge University Press.

Giddens, Anthony (1999), Runaway World. How globalisation is reshaping our lives, Profile Books, London.

WHAT IS THE REAL POLITICAL IMPACT OF OUR NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES? (4)



New communication technologies (NCTs) and democracy. The utopian view. The dystopian view. Do NCTs bring about democracy? The Egyptian 2011 revolution and Facebook, twitter, and Google. Mobile telephones SMSs and the Moldovan, Iranian, and Filipino uprisings. WikiLeaks. Is there really an ongoing Internet Revolution? The limits of these recent models.

El–Khalili, Sara 
 (2013), “Social media as a government propaganda tool in post–revolutionary Egypt” First Monday, vol 18, no 3, March http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/rt/printerFriendly/4620/3423
doi:10.5210/fm.v18i3.4620
Veilleux-Lepage, Yannick (2015), Paradigmatic Shifts in Jihadism in Cyberspace, draft, ECPR, retrieved in academia.edu, Aug 24, chrome-extension://mloajfnmjckfjbeeofcdaecbelnblden/http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/38556788/Retweeting_the_Caliphate_draft_ECPR_Aug_24.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1441718284&Signature=F9DPVAw7Khk56Z8IH4v%2BYLOBheM%3D
Benkler, Yochai (2011), “A Free Irresponsible Press. Wikileaks and the Battle Over the Soul of the Networked Fourth Estate”, CRCL Working Paper Feb. 8, Harvard Law School (google it, by title).

Morozov, Evgeny (2011), The Net Delusion. The Dark Side of Internet Freedom, Public Affairs, New York.

Yardi, Sarita and danah boyd (2010), “Tweeting from the Town Square. Measuring Geographic Local Networks”, (google it, by title).

Shirky, Clay (2009), Here Comes Everybody. The Power of Organizing Without Organizations, Allen Lane, Penguin Books.

Zittrain, Jonathan (2008), The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It, Yale University Press, New Haven & London.

Benkler, Yochai (2006), The Wealth of Networks. How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom, Yale University Press, New Haven & London.

Sunstein, Cass (2007), Republic.com 2.0, Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

Uy-Tioco, Cecilia Alexandra (2003), “The Cell Phone and Edsa 2. The Role of Technology in Ousting a President”, New School University (google it, by title).

Part 1



A RECASTING OF THE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LEGAL ORDERS INDUCED BY GROWING INTERDEPENDENCE TIES

SOME OF THE LINES OF CHANGE IN INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL JURAL ORDERS (5)



National legal orders and the mechanics of ongoing changes; difficulties faced and the various limitations to which they are subjected. A first approach: preliminary takes on the set of national legal systems and the international one.

Marques Guedes, Armando (2012), “Here be Dragons. Novos Conceitos de Segurança e o Mundo contemporâneo”, O Poder e o Estado: 5-36, with Luís Elias, ISCPSI and Almedina, Coimbra.

Marques Guedes, Armando (2007), O Semi-Presidencialismo e o Controlo da Constitucionalidade na África Lusófona, número especial da Negócios Estrangeiros 11.4, Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros, Lisboa.

Escarameia, Paula (2003), “Que Direito Internacional Público temos nos nossos dias?”, em O Direito Internacional Público nos Princípios do Século XXI: 11-55, Almedina, Combra.

Goldstein, Judith, Kahler, Miles, Keohane, Robert e Anne.Marie Slaughter (2000), “Introduction: legalization and world politics”, International Organization 54 83): 85-399, MIT Press.

Held, David (2000), “International Law”, em (eds.) D. Held e A. McGrew, The Global Transformations Reader: 167-172, Polity; original 1995, capítulo 5, Democracy and the Global Order: from the modern state to cosmopolitan governance, Polity e Stanford University Press.

Schauer, F. (2000), “The politics and incentives of legal transplantation”, em (eds.) J. S. Nye e J. D. Donahue, Governance in a Globalizing World: 253-271, Brookings Institution Press.

Delmas-Marty, Mireille (1999), “A mundialização do Direito: probabilidades e risco”, Studia Iuridica 41, Colloquia 3: 131-145, Boletim da Faculdade de Direito, Universidade de Coimbra.
STATES AND THEIR SOVEREIGNTY, NOWADAYS (6)

The end of medievalism and the progressive settling of the concept of sovereignty. What is the historical role of the Peace of Westphalia: a recent discussion. The impact of evolving political ideas or “organized hypocrisy”? The changing faces of state sovereignty.

Marques Guedes, Armando (2011), ““A estratégia política de reconstrução e a normatividade post bellum emergente. O caso da participação portuguesa no ISAF, Afeganistão, 2002-2011”, Conflictos Armados, Gestión Posconflicto y Reconstrucción: 477-515, Studia Iuridica, Santiago de Compostela, España.


Chertoff, Michael (2009), “The responsibility to Contain. Protecting sovereignty under international law”, Foreign Affairs, 88, 1: 130-148.

Moreira, Adriano (2007), A Comunidade Internacional em Mudança, Almedina, Coimbra, com uma longa apresentação de Armando Marques Guedes.

Krasner, Steven (2000), “Compromising Westphalia” em (eds.) D. Held e A. McGrew, The Global Transformations Reader: 124-136, Polity; original 1995, “Compromising Westphalia”, International Security , Harvard e MIT University Press.

STATES, NATIONAL JURISDICTIONS: THE EVENTUAL EMERGENCE OF A ‘UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION’? (7)



The erasure of bipolarity and the rapid generalized growth of a liberal model of state responsibility. The attempts at replanting an universal jurisdiction, the persistence of traditional models and the reaction of some democratic and non-democratic states. The controversial position of the North-American Administration, among others.


Guerreiro, Alexandre Teixeira Neto (2012); A Resistência dos Estados Africanos à Jurisdição do Tribunal Penal Internacional, Almedina, Coimbra.

Marques Guedes, Armando (2011), “A estratégia política de reconstrução e a normatividade post bellum emergente. O caso da participação portuguesa no ISAF, Afeganistão, 2002-2011”, Conflictos Armados, Gestión Posconflicto y Reconstrucción: 477-515, Studia Iuridica, Santiago de Compostela, España.


Kissinger, Henry (2001), “The pitfalls of universal jurisdiction”, Foreign Affairs 80 (4): 86-96, New York.

Richardson, B. (2001), “America’s interest in an international court”, The New York Times.

Escarameia, Paula (2001), “Quando o mundo das soberanias se transforma no mundo das pessoas: o estatuto do Tribunal Penal Internacional e as Constituições nacionais”, Themis 3: 143-183, FDUNL, Lisboa.

Forsythe, David (2000), “International criminal courts”, Human Rights and International Relations: 84-110, Cambridge University Press.



Part 2



POLITICAL SYSTEMS AND REGIMES, POWER AND LEGITIMATION
THE FORMATIONS OF POLITICAL INDIVIDUALISM (8)

Locke and the growth of a Theory of Property. Liberty and Autonomy, the Negative Liberty of Isaiah Berlin. The classical liberalism of Friederich Hayek. John Rawls and the liberal theory. Liberals and libertarians – the timely contention with Robert Nozick.
Berlin, Isaiah (1998), “Two Concepts of Freedom” [“Dois Conceitos de Liberdade” in “A Busca do Ideal”, Lisboa, Bizâncio].

Gray, John (1988), Liberalism, [O Liberalismo, Lisboa: Estampa].

Nozick, Robert (1974), Anarchy, State and Utopia, New York, Basic Books.

Rawls, John (1971), “Justice as Fairness”, in “A Theory of Justice”, Harvard University Press.

Hayek, Friederich August von (1960), The Constitution of Liberty, Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.

COMUNITARISMS AND MODERN STATES (9)



The claim of a primacy of political community over the “liberal abstraction”. Charles Taylor and the critique of “atomism”. The need for virtue in Alasdair MacIntyre. Michael Sandel and the “unencumbered self” of liberal theory. Spheres of justice in Michael Walzer. Self- and auto-referential communitarisms: the problem of Human Nature.
Sandel, Michael (2012), What Money Can't buy: The Moral Limits of Markets, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York.

Walzer, Michael (2007), Thinking Politically, Yale University Press.

Kymlica, Will (2002), Contemporary Political Philosophy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mulhall, S., and Swift, A. (1996), Liberals and Communitarians, Oxford: Blackwell, 2nd edition.

THE NEW LOCALIZATIONS OF POWER AND DEMOCRATIC STATES: THE EUROPEAN EXAMPLE (10)



Reductions in the role of states with the process of European integration: na atypical example? Francisco Lucas Pires and the “overflow of power”. Internal and external conjunctures and the revisions of sovereignty. The emergence of a federal model? A theoretical reflexion and a set of proposals.
Marques Guedes, Armando e Francisco Pereira Coutinho (2007), “O Processo de Integração Europeia e a Constituição Portuguesa”, Nação e Defesa, 115: 83-112, Instituto de Defesa Nacional.

Lucas Pires, Francisco (1997), Introdução ao Direito Constitucional Europeu, Almedina, Coimbra.

AFRICA, THE THIRD WAVE OF DEMOCRATIC TRANSITIONS AND ‘QUASI- DEMOCRATIC STATES’ (11)



Post-colonial African states: historical and political specificities. Processes of “political transition”, the “third wave”, and previous regimes: patterns and causal nexuses. Internal mechanisms and external systemic pressures. Contemporary processes of African democratization. The privatization of the state. The role of non-governmental organizations.
Marques Guedes, Armando (2009), “Semi-Presidencialismos e Processos de Presidencialização em Estados Lusófonos”, em Actas do I Congresso de Direitos Lusófonos: 116-143 , (eds. Jorge Bacelar Gouveia), Almedina

___________________(2008), “Uma articulação entre o Estado e as ‘Autoridades Tradicionais’? Limites na congruência entre o Direito do Estado e os Direitos ‘Tradicionais’ em Angola”, em (ed.) Diogo Freitas do Amaral, Estudos Comemorativos dos 10 anos da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, vol. 1: 715-753, Almedina, Coimbra.

________________(2005), Sociedade Civil e Estado em Angola. O Estado e a Sociedade Civil sobreviverão um ao outro? Almedina, Coimbra.
STATES AND TERRORISM (12)

The impact of terrorism in security and defense policies. The many-headed hydra: the complexity of the machinery of terrorism and the hurdles facing a global assault. Coalitions as germs of new forms of globalized governance?
Marques Guedes, Armando (2009), “O Tempo e as Ressonâncias: os Estados Modernos, o Anarquismo, o Anarco-Sindicalismo e Jihadismo”, Geopolítica 3: 51-99, Centro Português de Geopolítica, Lisboa.

Cronin, Audrey K. (2002), “Behind the curve. Globalization and international terrorism”, International Security 27 (3): 30-58, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachussets.

Gomes Canotilho, J. J. (2002), “Implicações para a cidadania”, em Os Novos Espaços de Segurança e Defesa: 21-43, Instituto de Altos Estudos Militares e Atena.

Carter, Ashton B. (2001), “The architecture of government in the face of terrorism”, International Security 26 (3): 5-23, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachussets.

Part 3



DEMOCRACY AND THE REINVENTION OF POLITICS?

WHAT ARE ‘RIGHT’ AND ‘LEFT’ IN THE CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL ORDER? (13)



Right and Left – is this still a useful distinction? A dynamic set of concepts. The continental perspective. The British take. North-American exceptionalism and its communitarian presuppositions: a liberal tradition. Norberto Bobbio and the sociological structure of the phenomenon. The structural place of religion.
Azevedo Correia, Jorge (2009), “O regresso da Comunidade e a ascensão da Religião: três contributos para a fundamentação do liberalismo”, Negócios Estrangeiros 14: 241-264.

Espada, João Carlos, Plattner, Marc e Wolfson, Adam (2007), Direita e Esquerda? Divisões Ideológicas no Século XXI, Lisboa, Universidade Católica Portuguesa.

Bobbio, Norberto (1995), Direita e Esquerda: razões e significados de uma distinção política, Lisboa: Presença.
EFFORTS FOR THE REINVENTION OF A MODERN POLITICAL DEMOCRACY (14)

The power of protest movements. Systemic institutional pressures for change and the new sociopolitical movements. “Liberal internationalism”, “radical communitarism”, and “democratic cosmopolitanism” as strategies which drive for a “domestication” of global transformation processes. Is there (mostly now with the financial crisis) a novel form of global governance arising?

(eds.) Castells, M., (2004), The Network Society: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA, extractos [há tradução portuguesa].



Cooley, Alexander e Ron, James (2002), “The NGO scramble. Organizational insecurity and the political economy of international action”, International Security 27 (1): 5-39, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachussets.

McGrew, Anthony, (2000), “Democracy beyond borders?”, em (eds.) D. Held e A. McGrew, The Global Transformations Reader: 405-420, Polity; original 1997, “Democracy beyond borders? Globalization and the reconstruction of democratic theory and politics”, capítulo 10, (ed.) A. McGrew, The transformation of Democracy? Globalization and territorial democracy, Polity, Cambridge.

Held, David (2000), “Regulating globalization? The reinvention of politics”, em (eds.) D. Held e A. McGrew, The Global Transformations Reader: 420-431, Polity; original 1997, Stockholm.

Tarrow, Sidney (1998), “Transnational contention” e “The future of social movements”, Power in Movement. Social movements and contentious politics: 176-196 e 196-210, Cambridge University Press.

“POST-MODERN” STATES: RECONSTRUCTING DEMOCRACY BY MEANS OF A NEW SOCIAL CONTRACT? A VIEW FROM THE POLITICAL ‘LEFT’ (15)



Democracy and post-modernity. New domains, novel issues and new responses to old political problems. Political reason and globalization: inequalities and the concentration of power. The new forms of power exercise. New figures for old problems? Utopia and liberation: the limits of a polemical interpretation.
Sousa Santos, Boaventura (1998), Reinventar a Democracia, Gradiva e Fundação Mário Soares, Lisboa.

UNIVERSAL HUMAN VALUES AND HUMAN RIGHTS AND THEIR FRUITION (16)



Rendering problematic the universality of Human Rights. The liberal perspective. Westernization or individualization-modernization? The liberal state and Human Rights: success or irrelevance? Installing a Human Rights “international regime”: internal and external dynamics and paths.

Marques Guedes, Armando (2010), “Democracy and its Boundaries. Can there be such a thing as a bona fide intergenerational social contract?”, Intergenerational Justice Review 1/2010: 31-22, The Foundation for the Rights of Future Generations (FRFG), Uberursel, Germany.

________________________(2005), “Local Normative Orders and Globalization. Is there Such a Thing as Universal Human Values?”, em Estudos sobre Relações Internacionais, Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros, Lisboa.



Franck, Thomas M. (2001), “Are human rights universal?”, Foreign Affairs 80, 1: 191-205, New York.

Risse, Thomas e Sikkink, Kathryn (1999), “The socialization of international human rights norms into domestic practices: an introduction”, em (eds.) T. Risse, S. Ropp e K. Sikkink, The Power of Human Rights. International norms and domestic change: 1-39 Cambridge University Press.







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