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What’s in a name?

The trouble with lingo
Remember the campaign in New York for garbage collectors to be called sanitation engineers?

Near the top of the strike’s agenda was the matter of getting the respect due to the people doing such essential work. Unfortunately, the new euphemistic title clarified nothing about the work and by now is either simply not heard for what it means, or is used in moments of gentle disdain. 10A clearer term may have both generated the respect desired and withstood the test of time.

Clarity and sincerity matter. Terms which mislead, confuse or cause offence can become a distraction from the real content of public debate. In the search for consensus, 2since public understanding is harder to change than terminology, changing the terminology might be a better place to start. No additional prejudice or emotion should be brought to a debate by the terminology used in it. Here are two examples.
Genetic Engineering and Genetic Modification

Despite the insistence of biotech scientists that genes of completely different species are no longer being mixed, the message isn’t being heard. They insist that they are now involved only in developments which simply hasten the natural processes of selective and cross breeding or cross pollination. As farmers and horticulturists have been doing exactly this, unquestioned, for years, they cannot understand public resistance.

The problem may well be the terminology. In this context, the words “scientific” or “genetic” have been irreparably sullied. If “genetic engineering” has, in the public’s view, become synonymous with the indiscriminate mixing of genes, and if the softer label “genetically modified” hasn’t been able to shake off a perception of sinister overtones, these terms might as well be dropped – or left attached only to experiments in Dr. Frankenstein’s laboratory.

Ideally, a new agricultural term would leave out the word “genetic” altogether: it seems to frighten the public. Assuming it described science’s benign genetic activities accurately, 8the term “productivity breeding” is not a trivial call for a euphemism; besides, it would probably encounter less public opposition.

So, let’s have new terms for selective cross breeding by scientists who simply speed up the same process that is carried out in nature.
Clean coal*

3If this new term was intended to be clear, it hasn’t worked.

In “Politics and the English Language” (1946), George Orwell wrote that 4because so much political speech involves defending the indefensible, 11it has to consist largely of euphemism. 6He insisted that, in politics, 7these euphemisms are “swindles” and “perversions” left deliberately vague in order to mislead. Deliberate or not, 12“clean coal” is one of these. Aside from being a contradiction in terms, the name is misleading, creating the impression of the existence of a new type of coal. In fact, it is 13ordinary coal which has been treated to “eliminate” most of its destructive by-products, which are then buried. The whole process produces emissions. 5This, though, isn’t clear when it is simply labelled “clean coal”. The term just doesn’t seem sincere. 9It’s a red rag to any green. It’s not asking too much to expect the term describing these procedures to be more accurate. A clearer term would be less provocative.

1So, what’s in a name? A lot. There’s the possibility of confusion, prejudice, perversions and swindles. For the sake of fair debate, let’s mean what we say and say what we mean.
* Coal: carvão

1. (Uerj 2012) The logical relationship between clauses establishes different notions. An example which expresses the notion of concession is indicated in:

a) since public understanding is harder to change than terminology, (ref. 2)

b) If this new term was intended to be clear, (ref. 3)

c) because so much political speech involves defending the indefensible, (ref. 4)

d) This, though, isn’t clear when it is simply labelled “clean coal”. (ref. 5)
2. (Uerj 2012) The fragments below share the question “What’s in a name?”:
What’s in a name?

The trouble with lingo (title)

So, what’s in a name? (ref. 1)
What’s in a name?

That which we call a rose

By any other name

Would smell as sweet
William Shakespeare
The author of the text uses a resource that consists of borrowing from another text, published beforehand. This resource is called:

a) synonymy

b) repetition

c) intertextuality

d) exemplification
3. (Uerj 2012) The author states that the process of eliminating the destructive by-products of the so-called “clean coal” produces emissions. The fragment of the text in which the underlined pronoun refers to the statement above is:

a) it has to consist largely of euphemism. (ref.11)

b) “clean coal” is one of these. (ref.12)

c) ordinary coal which has been treated to “eliminate” most of its destructive by-products, (ref.13)

d) This, though, isn’t clear (ref.5)
4. (Uerj 2012) A euphemism is a mild, indirect or vague expression used instead of one considered offensive, harsh or blunt. It may be used to hide unpleasant or disturbing ideas. According to the definition above, the expression “genetic engineering” can be considered a euphemism because:

a) it describes benign genetic activities

b) it is synonymous with “genetically modified”

c) it obscures the indiscriminate mixing of genes

d) it refers to monstrous experiments with genes
5. (Uerj 2012) He insisted that, in politics, these euphemisms are “swindles” and “perversions” left deliberately vague in order to mislead. (ref. 6)
In the fragment above, the inverted commas are used with the following purpose:

a) indicating the title of books

b) signalling the quotation of terms

c) conveying the sarcasm of the writer

d) suggesting the misapplication of words
6. (Uerj 2012) According to the text, the use of the expression “clean coal” might infuriate ecologists.

This idea is explicit in:

a) these euphemisms are “swindles” and “perversions” (ref. 7)

b) The term just doesn’t seem sincere. (ref. 8)

c) It’s a red rag to any green. (ref. 9)

d) A clearer term would be less provocative. (ref. 10)


Dilma ends trip to United States

Por Luciana Lima

While presidentDilmaRousseff was in New York she made six speeches, including the historical opening address to the 66th United Nations General Assembly. One of the overarching themes was adherence to the ideal of “preventive diplomacy” 1__________ a solution for world conflicts. That was in clear contrast to the idea of military intervention as practiced by NATO, especially recently during the so-called Arab Spring, in Libya.
Dilma also came out strongly in favor of greater participation of emerging nations in the decision-making process. She seconded the idea of full membership in the UN for Palestine, once again in opposition to the American position.
During a meeting on nuclear security on Thursday, September 22, Dilma called for an end to “privileges” that some nuclear countries have, saying the rules established during the Cold War were obsolete. “By allowing some nations to have nuclear arms [Britain, China, France, Russia and the United States], exclusive rights are created. This is a concept left over from the period after the Second World War that should be left to the past,” Dilma said, 2__________ she called for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons.
Retirado e adaptado de, em 29/09/2011

7. (Upf 2012)Segundo o texto, é incorreto afirmar que a presidente Dilma, durante sua viagem aos Estados Unidos da América:

a) Defendeu uma maior participação dos países emergentes no processo de tomada de decisões da ONU.

b) Demonstrou-se a favor da extinção de armas nucleares.

c) Posicionou-se de forma favorável à diplomacia preventiva.

d) Expressou opinião contrária aos Estados Unidos da América em relação à participação da Palestina na ONU.

e) Exigiu os privilégios que países detentores de armas nucleares possuem para o Brasil.
8. (Upf 2012)As palavras que completam corretamente as lacunas do texto (ref. 1 e 2, respectivamente), são:

a) as – like

b) as – as

c) for – as

d) like – like

e) for – like

9. (Upf 2012)Leia as informações abaixo:
( ) Os Estados Unidos da América garantem direitos exclusivos à Grã-Bretanha, China, França e Rússia por deterem armas nucleares.

( ) A presidente Dilma acredita que alguns países são beneficiados com direitos exclusivos quando lhes é dada a permissão para possuírem armas nucleares.

( ) A diplomacia preventiva vai ao encontro de intervenções militares.

( ) As regras estabelecidas aos países detentores de armas nucleares não condizem com a atualidade.

A sequência correta de preenchimento dos parênteses, de cima para baixo, em relação às ideias Verdadeiras (V) e Falsas (F), é:

a) F – V – F – F

b) F – F – F – V

c) F – V – F – V

d) F – F – V – V

e) V – V – F – V

10. (Upf 2012)A partir da leitura do primeiro parágrafo do texto, fica-se sabendo que:

a) A diplomacia preventiva foi o tema central da Assembleia Geral da ONU.

b) A diplomacia preventiva é entendida como uma forma de solucionar conflitos nos Estados Unidos.

c) A presidente Dilma participou de seis eventos da ONU em Nova Iorque.

d) A OTAN conduziu, recentemente, uma intervenção militar na Líbia, contrariando a ideia da diplomacia preventiva.

e) O discurso proferido pela presidente Dilma não foi relevante ao evento.


Adventures in Sub-Consciousness

By Sarah Modlock

__( I )__ you fancy a little underwater exploration without the hassle of learning to scuba dive, you’ll love the sub-scooter. It’s a battery-powered moped that propels you through water at a depth of 10 ft. (3 m), __( II )__ compressed air is pumped into a tiny glass cockpit from a boat on the surface — the resulting air pressure keeping water out of the hood. Pelagic treasures can be seen without even getting your hair wet.

The sub-scooter’s downside is that it is only found in Mauritius. But the upside is that you have another excuse — __( III )__ the deep-sea fishing, the beaches and the tranquility — to visit this beautiful island nation in the Indian Ocean.

Part of the vessel’s charm is that it offers an underwater encounter with no need for heavy oxygen cylinders or uncomfortable mouthpieces and masks. __( IV )__, the motor is virtually soundless, leaving sea creatures undisturbed and preserving a sense of the exotic. It won’t take you long to get a feel for the acceleration and steering, and you won’t need brakes: the coral is low-lying, and there’s nothing to bump into apart from other sub-scooters ( __( V )__ there’s little chance of that with scuba-diving guides pointing the way). Sure, the sub-scooter is too sedate for James Bond and probably rather restrictive for experienced divers, but it’s still a thrilling experience for visiting water babies. A two-hour excursion, including 30 minutes on a sub-scooter, costs about $160 for two people. Visit for details.


11. (Mackenzie 2010) The connectors that appropriately fill in blanks I, II, III, IV and V, in the text, are

a) As long as, when, however, So and but.

b) When, if, also, Then and therefore.

c) If, while, besides, Better still and although.

d) While, then, consequently, In addition and also.

e) As, as long as, for, Nevertheless and even.

12. (Mackenzie 2010) The text states that

a) nowadays people can explore the bottom of the sea even if they have no diving skills.

b) the underwater scooter can travel at a faster speed than regular motorboats in Mauritius.

c) creatures of the sea bump into divers in an effort to escape the acceleration of the scooters.

d) you can visit the Indian Ocean and look for treasures hidden underwater as long as oxygen cylinders are available.

e) no brakes are required underwater for air is propelled into your cockpit and compressed by a battery-operated machine deep in the ocean.



Bossa Nova, Brazil's unique mix of jazz and samba, celebrates 50 years this month with shows by one of the genre's pioneers, João Gilberto, who brought The Girl from Ipanema to the world. The three concerts by 77-year-old Gilberto in Rio and São Paulo sold out within an hour of going on sale Thursday, testifying to the lasting appeal and inspiration of both the silky music and the singer's hypnotically breathy performance.

Gilberto - the surviving member of the trio behind Bossa Nova that also counted composer Tom Jobim and poet Vinícius de Moraes - has not sung in public in Brazil for five years. His reputation, though, has never diminished, ever since August 1958 when his singular voice and guitar playing appeared on Chega de Saudade (Enough Longing, or, more commonly in English, No More Blues), a tune by Jobim and Moraes.

That was the first track to lay out the cool, intimate harmonies of Bossa Nova that add complexity to samba's more basic rhythms, giving it a jazz evolution whose impact has been felt over decades. US jazz greats Stan Getz and Charlie Byrd fell under its sway and added to its popularity.

But it was a 1962 worldwide hit by Gilberto, with his then-wife Astrud and Getz, that became the Bossa Nova standard. Garota de Ipanema, adapted to English as The Girl from Ipanema, was picked up by many singers, including Frank Sinatra. In 1963, the English version of the song raced up international charts. "We only lost to the Beatles. And there were four of them," wryly remarked Jobim. Bossa Nova spread everywhere from the mid-1960s, from Copacabana apartments to New York jazz clubs.

In Rio de Janeiro today, Bossa Nova has been supplanted by other genres, notably other samba variations and US-style hip-hop or rock. But, it can still be heard, a persistent note characterizing Brazil's iconically beautiful seaside city. "Today, there are a lot more albums than 40 years ago. It (Bossa Nova) is not at the top of the charts, but it is still a style picked up by people of all ages," said Ruy Castro, an author of several books on music. Lyra, the singer and composer who appeared in Carnegie Hall 46 years ago, was less generous. "If somebody asks me today where they can hear Bossa Nova in Rio, I say 'nowhere'. The music is more popular in Japan and Europe than in Brazil," he said.

( August 17, 2008. Adaptado.)

13. (Unifesp 2009) Notrecho do últimoparágrafo - "But, it can still be heard, a persistent note characterizing Brazil's iconically beautiful seaside city." -, a palavra BUT podesersubstituída, semalterar o sentido, por:

a) Then.

b) So.

c) Because.

d) However.

e) Such as.

14. (Unifesp 2009)Segundo o texto, João Gilberto

a) fez um show que celebrou 50 anos da Bossa Nova no dia de seu aniversário de 77 anos.

b) é o único integrante vivo do trio que criou a Bossa Nova há 50 anos.

c) adaptou "Garota de Ipanema" para o inglês em 1962, juntamente com Astrud, que era casada com Stan Getz.

d) fará uma homenagem a Tom Jobim ao cantar "Garota de Ipanema" em seu show no Rio de Janeiro em agosto.

e) morava em Copacabana com sua esposa Astrud Gilberto e mudou-se para Nova Iorque na década de 60.

15. (Unifesp 2009) According to the text:

a) Lyra and Ruy Castro agree that Bossa Nova is still very popular in Rio de Janeiro.

b) Even rock and hip-hop are performed in Rio with a Bossa Nova swing.

c) Bossa Nova represents Rio de Janeiro style of life everywhere, from Europe to Japan.

d) Bossa Nova influenced many other samba variations that now are popular in Rio de Janeiro.

e) Nowadays, there are other popular musical genres produced in Rio de Janeiro, such as rock and hip-hop.

16. (Unifesp 2009) Notrecho do terceiroparágrafo do texto - "That was the first track to lay out the cool, intimate harmonies of Bossa Nova" -, a palavra THAT refere-se a:

a) "Chega de Saudade".

b) Jobim and Moraes.

c) João Gilberto.

d) Bossa Nova.

e) samba.

17. (Unifesp 2009)A Bossa Nova, segundo o texto:

a) Terá seus 50 anos comemorados com shows simultâneos de João Gilberto, Roberto Carlos e Caetano Veloso, no Rio de Janeiro e em São Paulo.

b) Foi originada pela mistura do jazz de Stan Getz e Charlie Byrd com o samba de morro carioca.

c) Teve seu marco inicial com "Chega de Saudade", música cantada por João Gilberto no fim da década de 50.

d) Foi popularizada com a música "Garota de Ipanema", no dueto de Frank Sinatra e Tom Jobim.

e) Foi interpretada por expoentes internacionais como Astrud, Frank Sinatra e até os Beatles.



By Nicholas Bakalar

Happily married people tend to have lower blood pressure than their single peers, but being single may be healthier than being unhappily married, a new study suggests. The study, published on March 20 in 'The Annals of Behavioral Medicine', sampled 303 generally healthy men and women, 204 married and 99 single. Each responded to questions about marital quality, social support and mental health. Scales were used to rate stress and life satisfaction.

Then each subject wore a portable blood pressure monitor for 24 hours while performing their normal activities. The groups had little difference in waking blood pressure, but married people had significantly larger dips in blood pressure during sleep.

People whose blood pressure does not dip during sleep are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease, according to Julianne Holt-Lunstad, the lead author and an assistant professor of psychology at Brigham Young University.

On average, the unhappily married had higher daytime and 24-hour blood pressure readings than single people. Having a wide social network had no effect on the trends for either married or single people. But marital satisfaction was significantly associated with satisfaction with life, lower stress, less depression and lower waking blood pressure. "Just being married per se isn't helpful,'' Dr. Holt-Lunstad said, "because you can potentially be worse off in an unhappy marriage. So, choose wisely.''

( April 1, 2008. Adaptado.)

18. (Unifesp 2009) In the excerpt of the last paragraph - "So, choose wisely". - the word SO can be replaced, without changing its meaning, for:

a) Therefore.

b) Otherwise.

c) Nevertheless.

d) Moreover.

e) Furthermore.

19. (Unifesp 2009) According to the text:

a) It is better to be married rather than single.

b) Happily married couples have a normal blood pressure and therefore have a better health.

c) Blood pressure should increase during sleep; otherwise, there would be a higher risk for cardiovascular disease.

d) The worst result of the study was shown by unhappily married people.

e) Social network and close friends make single people much happier than married people.

20. (Unifesp 2009)O estudo apresentado pelo texto:

a) Consistiu em uma pesquisa com 303 casais.

b) Comparou a pressão sanguínea de pessoas solteiras com a das casadas.

c) Concluiu que a flutuação da pressão sanguínea é a mesma entre as pessoas casadas e solteiras.

d) Indicou que as pessoas que são infelizes no casamento têm problemas semelhantes aos das pessoas solteiras.

e) Mostrou que as pessoas solteiras sofrem mais de depressão e estresse do que as mal-casadas.

21. (Unifesp 2009) No trecho do segundoparágrafo - "The groups had little difference in waking blood pressure, but married people had significantly larger dips in blood pressure during sleep". -, a palavra GROUPS refere-se a:

a) Married people.

b) Single people.

c) Healthy men and women.

d) Unhappily married people.

e) Married people and single people.

22. (Ufla 2008) PASSAGE

An extinct species of animal or plant no longer has any living members. Many species have been recorded as having gone extinct in the twentieth century. 1However, occasionally a member of a species thought to be extinct is found. The coelacanth, a large bodied, hollow-spined fish, was one such creature. This predecessor of the amphibians was considered extinct until 1938, when one was caught by a fisherman off the coast of South Africa.

(Gear, Joele& Gear, Robert. "Cambridge Preparation for the Toefl Test", Cambridge University Press, 1996)

The word "however" (ref. 1) can be replaced by

a) although

b) so

c) but

d) through


As the 2007 Pan-American Games set for Rio de Janeiro approached, it seemed that everything was 4going the wrong way. Most Rio 2dwellers and Brazilians in general didn't think the city would be able to host this major 3sporting event.

In 2007, besides a rise in crime, air traffic problems escalated almost to a chaotic state, and the structural works for the games fell alarmingly behind schedule. 1__________, in a 5surprising manner, at the opening ceremony at Maracana Stadium, 8it seemed like all the problems had magically vanished.

The late structural works were suddenly solved at the last minute, in the best Brazilian tradition, and the overwhelming majority of events took place peacefully, except for 9a persistent and impolite booing from the spectators towards Americans, Argentineans and anyone playing against a Brazilian competitor.

Rio de Janeiro bade farewell to the 6participating delegations with a taste for 7hosting big events, and an eye at the Olympic Games of 2016. All things considered, the city's homework was definitely 10well done.

Adapted from: MOTA, Alan. 2007 Ohmy News International Sports. 30 jul. 2007. Acessoem: 05 set. 2007

23. (Ufrgs 2008) Select the correct alternative to fill the gap in reference 1 in order to connect the sentence with the previous one.

a) However

b) Therefore

c) In other words

d) Indeed

e) In addition


According to archeologists and anthropologists, the earliest clothing probably consisted of fur, leather, leaves or grass, draped, wrapped or tied about the body for protection from the elements. Knowledge of such clothing remains inferential, 1since clothing materials deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell and metal artifacts. Archeologists have identified very early sewing needles of bone and ivory from about 30,000 BC, found near Kostenki, Russia, in 1988.

24. (Ufpr 2008) Which expression can replace the word "since" (ref. 1) in the text without changing the meaning of the sentence?

a) because

b) after some time

c) when

d) from now on

e) longago


English sculptor Anish Kapoor, one of the greatest active artists in our time, was born in India in 1954. Having built an impressive oeuvre over the past three decades, today Kapoor 1stands out as a sculptor in the strictest sense of the word: he has introduced sculpture in a new aesthetic and technical scale by incorporating techniques - appropriated from architecture, aeronautics, and the heavy industry - to the support.

Anish Kapoor's forms and sculptures are apparently deceiving; they seem quite simple in terms of form, yet they convey, each of them, a dizzying complexity of natural elements, technique, aesthetic and finishing. Brazilian poet Antonio Cicero once told me that finishing accounts for 50% of a poetic creation. I have become deeply aware of this fact. In Kapoor's work, it accounts for even more. For example, "When I am Pregnant", is a work shrouded by a thin and 2fastidiously finished layer of plaster; it is a subtle protuberance on the wall, enunciating a bulging form that in itself heralds creation and the sublime. It is art, wanting to be born.

(Source: Cultural Project of Banco do Brasil, 2006)

25. (Pucrs 2008) According to the ideas in the text, the word that adequately completes the sentence "Kapoor's work is apparently simple; __________, it actually contains rich complexity" is

a) both

b) consequently

c) however

d) therefore

e) thus


Tracking Trauma

by Kevin Peraino

As an increasing number of war vets around the world are diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), some military establishments are questioning the validity of patient claims, given that they often result in financial settlements. In Israel, mental-health experts estimate that more than 3,000 vets suffer from some form of the disorder. (I) , Israeli Defense officials have admitted to hiring private investigators to conduct surveillance on former soldiers to find out (II) they are faking.

(Adapted from Newsweek)
26. (Mackenzie 2008) The connectors that properly fill in blanks I and II in the text are

a) However - where

b) Although - if

c) Meanwhile - whether

d) Consequently - who

e) Therefore - unless




byIshbelHingle and Viv Linington

Many teachers feel comfortable setting pencil-and-paper tests. Years of experience marking written work have made them familiar with the level of written competence pupils need in order to succeed in a specific standard. ( I ) , teachers often feel much less secure when dealing with tests which measure speaking and listening even though these skills are regarded as essential components of a diagnostic test which measures 1overall linguistic proficiency. ( II ) the second-language English pupils often come from an oral rather than a written culture, and so are likely to be more proficient in this mode of communication, at least in their own language, speaking in English may be a different matter. 2In English medium schools in particular a low level of English may impede students' acquisition of knowledge. ( III ) , identifying the correct level of English of the student is all the more challenging and important.

(Adapted from English Teaching Forum)
27. (Mackenzie 2007) The connectors that properly fill in blanks I, II and III in the text are:

a) in addition - consequently - however

b) however - although - therefore

c) despite - otherwise - as a result

d) so - furthermore - nevertheless

e) although - in contrast - on the other hand



On Magic Island' a virtuous cycle began with a ban on heavy industry.

One of the sad truths of the developing world is that an urban population boom has so often been bad news. From Jakarta to Rio de Janeiro, more people have typically meant more ghettoes, more crime, and less economic life. That's one reason urbanites in big cities are moving to places like Florianópolis, an island city 700 kilometers south of São Paulo, where bigger doesn't always mean worse.

Between 1970 and 2004, Florianópolis's population tripled. So did the number of shantytowns. But the local economy grew fivefold, and incomes grew in step. Opportunity seekers, urban and rural, white collar and blue, poured in. With a hundred or so beaches lining the "magic island," tourism is thriving. And while many Brazilian cities are struggling to graduate from smokestacks to serpresidente vice-presidentes, Florianópolis is succeeding. Thanks in part to a federal rule that for decades barred heavy industry on the island, town stewards promoted cleaner public works, and wound up with a network of public and private universities that make this one of the most scholarly cities in Brazil.

To tend to the demanding academic crowd, the city invested heavily in everything from roads to schools, and now Florianópolis ranks high on every development measure, from literacy (97 percent) to electrification (near 100 percent). By the late 1990s, private companies were flocking to the island, or emerging from a technology "incubator" at the federal university. (Among the innovations it hatched: the computerized voting machines that have made Brazilian elections fraud-free and efficient.) Local officials now say their aim is to be the Silicon Valley of Brazil, with beaches. Don'tcountthem out.

(Margolis, Mac. Newsweek, 10/07/2006.)
28. (Ufes 2007) De acordo com as informações contidas no texto, a palavra "yet" do título pode ser substituída por

a) "and".

b) "because".

c) "but".

d) "so".

e) "too".

29. (Ufes 2007) Na universidade federal local, foi concebida a ideia da

a) automação industrial.

b) eletrificação rural.

c) inteligência artificial.

d) tecnologia robótica.

e) urna eletrônica.

30. (Ufes 2007) O crescimento acentuado da população é, em geral, considerado como

a) motivação para o desenvolvimento.

b) propulsor do progresso.

c) um sinal de descaso.

d) uma má notícia.

e) verdade incontestável.

31. (Ufes 2007) Muita gente de outros grandes centros veio para Florianópolis porque

a) a cidade fica a 700 km de São Paulo.

b) a população de lá triplicou.

c) a qualidade de vida lá é melhor.

d) há menos vida econômica lá.

e) não há favelas lá.

32. (Ufes 2007) Florianópolis é também considerada uma cidade

a) dormitório.

b) fechada.

c) laboratório.

d) tradicional.

e) universitária.


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