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Domestic and Agriculture Tools and Utensils in the Bible

Source Sheet by Cutsau Nhuta

Introduction

Tools and utensils are very important up to date. However, they have suffered a lot of changes over times and that is why it is very important to look back and take into consideration tools and utensils that were used in the Biblical period in order to be able to make an accurate translation, after understanding fully things they used, how they were used and for what purpose.

This paper will focus on tools and utensils for housing and agriculture; by describing them and briefly comment about their usage in the Biblical period.
Agricultural Tools and utensils

Longing to discuss by focusing on the tools and utensils in the household and agricultural environment, first of let us deal the agricultural materials and later discuss home materials.
I. Plow  אֵת

The plow consisted of a flat triangular blade made of hardwood or metal. Ropes or a wooden pole attached to the handle were connected to the yoke and pulled by one or more animals. The plow was used to cut the soil in preparation for the sowing of seed or the planting.



I Samuel 13:20

(20) So all the Israelites had to go down to the Philistines to have their plowshares, their mattocks, axes, and colters sharpened.


שמואלאי״ג:כ׳

(כ) וַיֵּרְד֥וּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים לִ֠לְטוֹשׁ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־מַחֲרַשְׁתּ֤וֹ וְאֶת־אֵתוֹ֙ וְאֶת־קַרְדֻּמּ֔וֹ וְאֵ֖ת מַחֲרֵשָׁתֽוֹ׃



II. Yoke  מֹטֹ֣ת

The yoke was a frame of wood, normally attached by a rope or bar which was used to joined draft animals at the neck so that they could work together and effectively in pulling a plow, threshing board, harrow, or wagon.


Leviticus 26:13

(13) I the LORD am your God who brought you out from the land of the Egyptians to be their slaves no more, who broke the bars of your yoke and made you walk erect.


ויקראכ״ו:י״ג

(יג) אֲנִ֞י יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר הוֹצֵ֤אתִי אֶתְכֶם֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם מִֽהְיֹ֥ת לָהֶ֖ם עֲבָדִ֑ים וָאֶשְׁבֹּר֙ מֹטֹ֣ת עֻלְּכֶ֔ם וָאוֹלֵ֥ךְ אֶתְכֶ֖ם קֽוֹמְמִיּֽוּת׃ (פ)






Isaiah 58:6

(6) No, this is the fast I desire: To unlock fetters of wickedness, And untie the cords of the yoke To let the oppressed go free; To break off every yoke.


ישעיהונ״ח:ו׳

(ו) הֲל֣וֹא זֶה֮ צ֣וֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ֒ פַּתֵּ֙חַ֙ חַרְצֻבּ֣וֹת רֶ֔שַׁע הַתֵּ֖ר אֲגֻדּ֣וֹת מוֹטָ֑ה וְשַׁלַּ֤ח רְצוּצִים֙ חָפְשִׁ֔ים וְכָל־מוֹטָ֖ה תְּנַתֵּֽקוּ׃



III. Hoe  שָׁמִ֣יר

The hoe was a flat metal blade, about 10-20cm wide, mounted on a wooden handle with the blade and was used to loosen the soil, especially for hoeing.



Isaiah 7:25

(25) But the perils of thornbush and thistle shall not spread to any of the hills that could only be tilled with a hoe; and here cattle shall be let loose, and sheep and goats shall tramp about.”


ישעיהוז׳:כ״ה

(כה) וְכֹ֣ל הֶהָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר בַּמַּעְדֵּר֙ יֵעָ֣דֵר֔וּן לֹֽא־תָב֣וֹא שָׁ֔מָּה יִרְאַ֖ת שָׁמִ֣יר וָשָׁ֑יִת וְהָיָה֙ לְמִשְׁלַ֣ח שׁ֔וֹר וּלְמִרְמַ֖ס שֶֽׂה׃ (פ)




IV. Forks קִלְּשׁ֖וֹן

The fork was an iron head consisting of two or three pointed prongs attached to the end of a wooden handle approximately 1-1.3m in length. The fork was used by farmers and field workers to lift piles of cuttings.


I Samuel 13:21

(21) The charge for sharpening was a pim for plowshares, mattocks, three-pronged forks, and axes, and for setting the goads.


שמואלאי״ג:כ״א

(כא) וְֽהָיְתָ֞ה הַפְּצִ֣ירָה פִ֗ים לַמַּֽחֲרֵשֹׁת֙ וְלָ֣אֵתִ֔ים וְלִשְׁלֹ֥שׁ קִלְּשׁ֖וֹן וּלְהַקַּרְדֻּמִּ֑ים וּלְהַצִּ֖יב הַדָּרְבָֽן׃



V. Axe  הַבַּרְזֶ֖ל

The axe was an instrument with a metal, sharp-edged head attached to a wooden handle about the length of a man’s arm. The handle was usually wedged tightly into a hole opposite the sharp blade. It was used to cut down trees and woody plants as well as to chop them into smaller pieces. It could also serve as a carpenter’s tool for shaping wood.



II Kings 6:5

(5) As one of them was felling a trunk, the iron ax head fell into the water. And he cried aloud, “Alas, master, it was a borrowed one!”


מלכיםבו׳:ה׳

(ה) וַיְהִ֤י הָֽאֶחָד֙ מַפִּ֣יל הַקּוֹרָ֔ה וְאֶת־הַבַּרְזֶ֖ל נָפַ֣ל אֶל־הַמָּ֑יִם וַיִּצְעַ֥ק וַיֹּ֛אמֶר אֲהָ֥הּ אֲדֹנִ֖י וְה֥וּא שָׁאֽוּל׃






I Kings 6:7

(7) When the House was built, only finished stones cut at the quarry were used, so that no hammer or ax or any iron tool was heard in the House while it was being built.


מלכיםאו׳:ז׳

(ז) וְהַבַּ֙יִת֙ בְּהִבָּ֣נֹת֔וֹ אֶֽבֶן־שְׁלֵמָ֥ה מַסָּ֖ע נִבְנָ֑ה וּמַקָּב֤וֹת וְהַגַּרְזֶן֙ כָּל־כְּלִ֣י בַרְזֶ֔ל לֹֽא־נִשְׁמַ֥ע בַּבַּ֖יִת בְּהִבָּנֹתֽוֹ׃






Judges 9:48

(48) Abimelech and all the troops he had with him went up on Mount Zalmon. Taking an ax in his hand, Abimelech lopped off a tree limb and lifted it onto his shoulder. Then he said to the troops that accompanied him, “What you saw me do—quick, do the same!”


שופטיםט׳:מ״ח

(מח) וַיַּ֨עַל אֲבִימֶ֜לֶךְ הַר־צַלְמ֗וֹן הוּא֮ וְכָל־הָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ֒ וַיִּקַּח֩ אֲבִימֶ֨לֶךְ אֶת־הַקַּרְדֻּמּ֜וֹת בְּיָד֗וֹ וַיִּכְרֹת֙ שׂוֹכַ֣ת עֵצִ֔ים וַיִּ֨שָּׂאֶ֔הָ וַיָּ֖שֶׂם עַל־שִׁכְמ֑וֹ וַיֹּ֜אמֶר אֶל־הָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־עִמּ֗וֹ מָ֤ה רְאִיתֶם֙ עָשִׂ֔יתִי מַהֲר֖וּ עֲשׂ֥וּ כָמֽוֹנִי׃




VI. Pruning knife מַזְמֵרָה

The knife was a small blade with a handle, used for cutting meat and other food. The pruning knife was a metal blade, sometimes attached to a long wooden handle and used for cutting off unproductive branches so they could produce better.



Isaiah 2:4

(4) Thus He will judge among the nations And arbitrate for the many peoples, And they shall beat their swords into plowshares And their spears into pruning hooks: Nation shall not take up Sword against nation; They shall never again know war.


ישעיהוב׳:ד׳

(ד) וְשָׁפַט֙ בֵּ֣ין הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְהוֹכִ֖יחַ לְעַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֑ים וְכִתְּת֨וּ חַרְבוֹתָ֜ם לְאִתִּ֗ים וַחֲנִיתֽוֹתֵיהֶם֙ לְמַזְמֵר֔וֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂ֨א ג֤וֹי אֶל־גּוֹי֙ חֶ֔רֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְד֥וּ ע֖וֹד מִלְחָמָֽה׃ (פ)



Domestic Tools and Utensils

After discussing a little bit about Tools and utensils involved in the agricultural environment, now let us turn to the second part. Here we shall be on the other hand discussing about the tools and utensils that were used at home.


VII. Potter’s wheel  אָבְנַיִם

The potter’s wheel was a flat, horizontal wheel made of stone. On the underside of the stone, there was a pointed projection. This projection sat in an indentation on a stationary lower stone and served as an axis around which the upper stone turned. Clay was placed in the center of the upper wheel and the potter used his fingers to form the spinning clay into the desired shape.



Jeremiah 18:3

(3) So I went down to the house of a potter, and found him working at the wheel.


ירמיהוי״ח:ג׳

(ג) וָאֵרֵ֖ד בֵּ֣ית הַיּוֹצֵ֑ר והנהו [וְהִנֵּה־] [ה֛וּא] עֹשֶׂ֥ה מְלָאכָ֖ה עַל־הָאָבְנָֽיִם׃




VIII. Stone weights  אַבְנֵי־צֶ֗דֶק

Stones of various sizes and weights were used on balance scales to determine the price of produce being sold. They were usually marked with their weights.



Leviticus 19:36

(36) You shall have an honest balance, honest weights, an honest ephah, and an honest hin. I the LORD am your God who freed you from the land of Egypt.


ויקראי״ט:ל״ו

(לו) מֹ֧אזְנֵי צֶ֣דֶק אַבְנֵי־צֶ֗דֶק אֵ֥יפַת צֶ֛דֶק וְהִ֥ין צֶ֖דֶק יִהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם אֲנִי֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם׃




IX. Money, coins  כֶּסֶף זָּהָֽב

Coins were small disks made of various kinds of metal. They were stamped or minted with words, symbols, likenesses of leaders, and so on, as a means of identifying their origin and relative values.



Genesis 13:2

(2) Now Abram was very rich in cattle, silver, and gold.


בראשיתי״ג:ב׳

(ב) וְאַבְרָ֖ם כָּבֵ֣ד מְאֹ֑ד בַּמִּקְנֶ֕ה בַּכֶּ֖סֶף וּבַזָּהָֽב׃




Genesis 42:25

(25) Then Joseph gave orders to fill their bags with grain, return each one’s money to his sack, and give them provisions for the journey; and this was done for them.


בראשיתמ״ב:כ״ה

(כה) וַיְצַ֣ו יוֹסֵ֗ף וַיְמַלְא֣וּ אֶת־כְּלֵיהֶם֮ בָּר֒ וּלְהָשִׁ֤יב כַּסְפֵּיהֶם֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־שַׂקּ֔וֹ וְלָתֵ֥ת לָהֶ֛ם צֵדָ֖ה לַדָּ֑רֶךְ וַיַּ֥עַשׂ לָהֶ֖ם כֵּֽן׃




X. Scroll, book  מְגִלַּת־סֵפֶר֒

The scroll was a long strip of writing material made by sewing together sheets of papyrus or parchment. This strip was then rolled up from one end or from both ends to form one or two cylinders. Usually, the ends of the scroll were attached to sticks, around which the scroll was rolled. An unrolled scroll was often about 10m in length. It stood approximately 23-25cm high.



Jeremiah 36:2

(2) Get a scroll and write upon it all the words that I have spoken to you—concerning Israel and Judah and all the nations—from the time I first spoke to you in the days of Josiah to this day.


ירמיהול״ו:ב׳

(ב) קַח־לְךָ֮ מְגִלַּת־סֵפֶר֒ וְכָתַבְתָּ֣ אֵלֶ֗יהָ אֵ֣ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֞ים אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּ֧רְתִּי אֵלֶ֛יךָ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל וְעַל־יְהוּדָ֖ה וְעַל־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם מִיּ֞וֹם דִּבַּ֤רְתִּי אֵלֶ֙יךָ֙ מִימֵ֣י יֹאשִׁיָּ֔הוּ וְעַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃






Deuteronomy 17:18

(18) When he is seated on his royal throne, he shall have a copy of this Teaching written for him on a scroll by the levitical priests.


דבריםי״ז:י״ח

(יח) וְהָיָ֣ה כְשִׁבְתּ֔וֹ עַ֖ל כִּסֵּ֣א מַמְלַכְתּ֑וֹ וְכָ֨תַב ל֜וֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵ֨ה הַתּוֹרָ֤ה הַזֹּאת֙ עַל־סֵ֔פֶר מִלִּפְנֵ֥י הַכֹּהֲנִ֖ים הַלְוִיִּֽם׃



XI. Writing tablet  ל֣וּחַ

The writing tablet was a small, flat board, normally made of wood. A pointed stick or stylus was used to make marks and letters in the wax layer for short messages


Jeremiah 17:1

(1) The guilt of Judah is inscribed With a stylus of iron, Engraved with an adamant point On the tablet of their hearts, And on the horns of their altars,


ירמיהוי״ז:א׳

(א) חַטַּ֣את יְהוּדָ֗ה כְּתוּבָ֛ה בְּעֵ֥ט בַּרְזֶ֖ל בְּצִפֹּ֣רֶן שָׁמִ֑יר חֲרוּשָׁה֙ עַל־ל֣וּחַ לִבָּ֔ם וּלְקַרְנ֖וֹת מִזְבְּחוֹתֵיכֶֽם׃






Proverbs 3:3

(3) Let fidelity and steadfastness not leave you; Bind them about your throat, Write them on the tablet of your mind,


משליג׳:ג׳

(ג) חֶ֥סֶד וֶאֱמֶ֗ת אַֽל־יַעַ֫זְבֻ֥ךָ קָשְׁרֵ֥ם עַל־גַּרְגְּרוֹתֶ֑יךָ כָּ֝תְבֵ֗ם עַל־ל֥וּחַ לִבֶּֽךָ׃



XII. Hammer הַלְמוּת

The hammer was an instrument about 30cm long. It had a handle, usually made of wood, to which was attached a stone, wooden, or metal head. It served many purposes, including the breaking or dressing of building stones, pounding nails or pegs into the wood, or pounding pegs into the ground. It also was used by blacksmiths to shape hot metal.


Judges 5:26

(26) Her [left] hand reached for the tent pin, Her right for the workmen’s hammer. She struck Sisera, crushed his head, Smashed and pierced his temple.


שופטיםה׳:כ״ו

(כו) יָדָהּ֙ לַיָּתֵ֣ד תִּשְׁלַ֔חְנָה וִֽימִינָ֖הּ לְהַלְמ֣וּת עֲמֵלִ֑ים וְהָלְמָ֤ה סִֽיסְרָא֙ מָחֲקָ֣ה רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וּמָחֲצָ֥ה וְחָלְפָ֖ה רַקָּתֽוֹ׃






Isaiah 41:7

(7) The woodworker encourages the smith; He who flattens with the hammer [Encourages] him who pounds the anvil. He says of the riveting, “It is good!” And he fixes it with nails, That it may not topple.


ישעיהומ״א:ז׳

(ז) וַיְחַזֵּ֤ק חָרָשׁ֙ אֶת־צֹרֵ֔ף מַחֲלִ֥יק פַּטִּ֖ישׁ אֶת־ה֣וֹלֶם פָּ֑עַם אֹמֵ֤ר לַדֶּ֙בֶק֙ ט֣וֹב ה֔וּא וַיְחַזְּקֵ֥הוּ בְמַסְמְרִ֖ים לֹ֥א יִמּֽוֹט׃ (ס)



XIII. Anointing horn   הַשֶּׁ֛מֶן

The anointing horn was a small container for holding olive oil. It was made of an animal horn or other material. The horn usually had to be hollowed out. It was used for the ceremony for installing a person in the office of king or priest included pouring olive oil over his head.



I Samuel 10:1

(1) Samuel took a flask of oil and poured some on Saul’s head and kissed him, and said, “The LORD herewith anoints you ruler over His own people.


שמואלאי׳:א׳

(א) וַיִּקַּ֨ח שְׁמוּאֵ֜ל אֶת־פַּ֥ךְ הַשֶּׁ֛מֶן וַיִּצֹ֥ק עַל־רֹאשׁ֖וֹ וַיִּשָּׁקֵ֑הוּ וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הֲל֗וֹא כִּֽי־מְשָׁחֲךָ֧ יְהוָ֛ה עַל־נַחֲלָת֖וֹ לְנָגִֽיד׃






I Samuel 16:1

(1) And the LORD said to Samuel, “How long will you grieve over Saul, since I have rejected him as king over Israel? Fill your horn with oil and set out; I am sending you to Jesse the Bethlehemite, for I have decided on one of his sons to be king.”


שמואלאט״ז:א׳

(א) וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל עַד־מָתַי֙ אַתָּה֙ מִתְאַבֵּ֣ל אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל וַאֲנִ֣י מְאַסְתִּ֔יו מִמְּלֹ֖ךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל מַלֵּ֨א קַרְנְךָ֜ שֶׁ֗מֶן וְלֵ֤ךְ אֶֽשְׁלָחֲךָ֙ אֶל־יִשַׁ֣י בֵּֽית־הַלַּחְמִ֔י כִּֽי־רָאִ֧יתִי בְּבָנָ֛יו לִ֖י מֶֽלֶךְ׃



XV. Sword  חֶרֶב

The sword was a long, heavy knife made of metal, at first of bronze, and later of harder metals like iron. It was used for cutting things and some time for fighting.



Exodus 5:3

(3) They answered, “The God of the Hebrews has manifested Himself to us. Let us go, we pray, a distance of three days into the wilderness to sacrifice to the LORD our God, lest He strike us with pestilence or sword.”


שמותה׳:ג׳

(ג) וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ אֱלֹהֵ֥י הָעִבְרִ֖ים נִקְרָ֣א עָלֵ֑ינוּ נֵ֣לֲכָה נָּ֡א דֶּרֶךְ֩ שְׁלֹ֨שֶׁת יָמִ֜ים בַּמִּדְבָּ֗ר וְנִזְבְּחָה֙ לַֽיהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ פֶּ֨ן־יִפְגָּעֵ֔נוּ בַּדֶּ֖בֶר א֥וֹ בֶחָֽרֶב׃



XVI. Oil lamp: מָאוֹר

Oil Lamp was a small vessel usually made of clay and could take several forms. According to Pritz (2009), the body of the lamp was normally filled with oil, into which the wick was placed so that it can lit a small area.



Exodus 25:6

(6) oil for lighting, spices for the anointing oil and for the aromatic incense;


שמותכ״ה:ו׳

(ו) שֶׁ֖מֶן לַמָּאֹ֑ר בְּשָׂמִים֙ לְשֶׁ֣מֶן הַמִּשְׁחָ֔ה וְלִקְטֹ֖רֶת הַסַּמִּֽים׃






II Chronicles 21:7

(7) However, the LORD refrained from destroying the House of David for the sake of the covenant he had made with David, and in accordance with his promise to maintain a lamp for him and his descendants for all time.


דבריהימיםבכ״א:ז׳

(ז) וְלֹא־אָבָ֣ה יְהוָ֗ה לְהַשְׁחִית֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית דָּוִ֔יד לְמַ֣עַן הַבְּרִ֔ית אֲשֶׁ֥ר כָּרַ֖ת לְדָוִ֑יד וְכַאֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמַ֗ר לָתֵ֨ת ל֥וֹ נִ֛יר וּלְבָנָ֖יו כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים׃



XVII. Cooking Pots  הַסִּיר֙

They were used as cooking pots and kettles which were made deep and fired earthenware.

 



Ezekiel 24:6

(6) Assuredly, thus said the Lord GOD: Woe to the city of blood— A caldron whose scum is in it, Whose scum has not been cleaned out! Empty it piece by piece; No lot has fallen upon it.


יחזקאלכ״ד:ו׳

(ו) לָכֵ֞ן כֹּה־אָמַ֣ר ׀ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהֹוִ֗ה אוֹי֮ עִ֣יר הַדָּמִים֒ סִ֚יר אֲשֶׁ֣ר חֶלְאָתָ֣ה בָ֔הּ וְחֶ֨לְאָתָ֔הּ לֹ֥א יָצְאָ֖ה מִמֶּ֑נָּה לִנְתָחֶ֤יהָ לִנְתָחֶ֙יהָ֙ הוֹצִיאָ֔הּ לֹא־נָפַ֥ל עָלֶ֖יהָ גּוֹרָֽל׃






Ezekiel 24:3

(3) Further, speak in an allegory to the rebellious breed and say to them: Thus said the Lord GOD: Put the caldron [on the fire], put it on, And then pour water into it.


יחזקאלכ״ד:ג׳

(ג) וּמְשֹׁ֤ל אֶל־בֵּית־הַמֶּ֙רִי֙ מָשָׁ֔ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה שְׁפֹ֤ת הַסִּיר֙ שְׁפֹ֔ת וְגַם־יְצֹ֥ק בּ֖וֹ מָֽיִם׃



XVIII. Jars הַבַּקְבֻּ֑ק

Jars were solid objects for holding things. Pritz (2009) mentioned that Containers were made of earthenware or metal, sometimes of wood. And they were different kinds of jars such as flask, water jar, alabaster jar, etc.



Jeremiah 19:10

(10) Then you shall smash the jug in the sight of the men who go with you,


ירמיהוי״ט:י׳

(י) וְשָׁבַרְתָּ֖ הַבַּקְבֻּ֑ק לְעֵינֵי֙ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים הַהֹלְכִ֖ים אוֹתָֽךְ׃






Isaiah 30:14

(14) It is smashed as one smashes an earthen jug, Ruthlessly shattered So that no shard is left in its breakage To scoop coals from a brazier, Or ladle water from a puddle.


ישעיהול׳:י״ד

(יד) וּ֠שְׁבָרָהּ כְּשֵׁ֨בֶר נֵ֧בֶל יוֹצְרִ֛ים כָּת֖וּת לֹ֣א יַחְמֹ֑ל וְלֹֽא־יִמָּצֵ֤א בִמְכִתָּתוֹ֙ חֶ֔רֶשׂ לַחְתּ֥וֹת אֵשׁ֙ מִיָּק֔וּד וְלַחְשֹׂ֥ף מַ֖יִם מִגֶּֽבֶא׃ (פ)



XIX. Bowl  קְעָרֹתָ, plate מַחֲבַ֣ת, and cups כֹס֑וֹת

They were made of different types and size, they were important for holding cooking food or liquids. Pritz (2009) refers that the plate was a flat dish on which food was eaten or served. It was normally made of clay, but the dishes of royalty and rich people could be made of precious metals.” There was no physical difference between a small bowl and cup because cups were made also without handles.



Exodus 37:16

(16) The utensils that were to be upon the table—its bowls, ladles, jugs, and jars with which to offer libations—he made of pure gold.


שמותל״ז:ט״ז

(טז) וַיַּ֜עַשׂ אֶֽת־הַכֵּלִ֣ים ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הַשֻּׁלְחָ֗ן אֶת־קְעָרֹתָ֤יו וְאֶת־כַּפֹּתָיו֙ וְאֵת֙ מְנַקִּיֹּתָ֔יו וְאֶת־הַקְּשָׂוֺ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֻסַּ֖ךְ בָּהֵ֑ן זָהָ֖ב טָהֽוֹר׃ (פ)






Ezekiel 4:3

(3) Then take an iron plate and place it as an iron wall between yourself and the city, and set your face against it. Thus it shall be under siege, you shall besiege it. This shall be an omen for the House of Israel.


יחזקאלד׳:ג׳

(ג) וְאַתָּ֤ה קַח־לְךָ֙ מַחֲבַ֣ת בַּרְזֶ֔ל וְנָתַתָּ֤ה אוֹתָהּ֙ קִ֣יר בַּרְזֶ֔ל בֵּינְךָ֖ וּבֵ֣ין הָעִ֑יר וַהֲכִינֹתָה֩ אֶת־פָּנֶ֨יךָ אֵלֶ֜יהָ וְהָיְתָ֤ה בַמָּצוֹר֙ וְצַרְתָּ֣ עָלֶ֔יהָ א֥וֹת הִ֖יא לְבֵ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ (ס)






Jeremiah 35:5

(5) I set bowls full of wine and cups before the men of the house of the Rechabites, and said to them, “Have some wine.”


ירמיהול״ה:ה׳

(ה) וָאֶתֵּ֞ן לִפְנֵ֣י ׀ בְּנֵ֣י בֵית־הָרֵכָבִ֗ים גְּבִעִ֛ים מְלֵאִ֥ים יַ֖יִן וְכֹס֑וֹת וָאֹמַ֥ר אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם שְׁתוּ־יָֽיִן׃




XX. Broom  רֹ֣תֶם

The broom was a useful material for sweeping dirt from the floor. It was normally made by attaching a longer or shorter stick to some flexible branches material.



I Kings 19:4

(4) he himself went a day’s journey into the wilderness. He came to a broom bush and sat down under it, and prayed that he might die. “Enough!” he cried. “Now, O LORD, take my life, for I am no better than my fathers.”


מלכיםאי״ט:ד׳

(ד) וְהֽוּא־הָלַ֤ךְ בַּמִּדְבָּר֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ י֔וֹם וַיָּבֹ֕א וַיֵּ֕שֶׁב תַּ֖חַת רֹ֣תֶם אחת [אֶחָ֑ד] וַיִּשְׁאַ֤ל אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ֙ לָמ֔וּת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ רַ֗ב עַתָּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ קַ֣ח נַפְשִׁ֔י כִּֽי־לֹא־ט֥וֹב אָנֹכִ֖י מֵאֲבֹתָֽי׃



XXI. Chair, seat  כִסֵּ֣א

The chair was an object on which a person sat. Chairs differed widely in shape and materials. Most often they were made of a wooden or cane frame.



II Kings 4:10

(10) Let us make a small enclosed upper chamber and place a bed, a table, a chair, and a lampstand there for him, so that he can stop there whenever he comes to us.”


מלכיםבד׳:י׳

(י) נַֽעֲשֶׂה־נָּ֤א עֲלִיַּת־קִיר֙ קְטַנָּ֔ה וְנָשִׂ֨ים ל֥וֹ שָׁ֛ם מִטָּ֥ה וְשֻׁלְחָ֖ן וְכִסֵּ֣א וּמְנוֹרָ֑ה וְהָיָ֛ה בְּבֹא֥וֹ אֵלֵ֖ינוּ יָס֥וּר שָֽׁמָּה׃



XXII. Hand mills רֵחַ֗יִם

Hand mills were mostly made of stone in preparing food for consumption. Yamauchi and Wilson (2016) pointed out that it is a kind of mortars that was employed in preparing mana for consumption in the wilderness.




Numbers 11:8

(8) The people would go about and gather it, grind it between millstones or pound it in a mortar, boil it in a pot, and make it into cakes. It tasted like rich cream.


במדברי״א:ח׳

(ח) שָׁטוּ֩ הָעָ֨ם וְלָֽקְט֜וּ וְטָחֲנ֣וּ בָרֵחַ֗יִם א֤וֹ דָכוּ֙ בַּמְּדֹכָ֔ה וּבִשְּׁלוּ֙ בַּפָּר֔וּר וְעָשׂ֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ עֻג֑וֹת וְהָיָ֣ה טַעְמ֔וֹ כְּטַ֖עַם לְשַׁ֥ד הַשָּֽׁמֶן׃






Deuteronomy 24:6

(6) A handmill or an upper millstone shall not be taken in pawn, for that would be taking someone’s life in pawn.


דבריםכ״ד:ו׳

(ו) לֹא־יַחֲבֹ֥ל רֵחַ֖יִם וָרָ֑כֶב כִּי־נֶ֖פֶשׁ ה֥וּא חֹבֵֽל׃ (ס)



Conclusion

During the Biblical period as well as today, tools and utensils are needed for human being survival in this world. Though, they were not of good quality like those of today, due to the little knowledge on shaping things, they were useful to them. As a translator, these tools and utensils need to be known in order to give the right or equivalent meaning to the target language.



References




Source Sheet created on Sefaria by Cutsau Nhuta



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