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Interbits – SuperPro ® Web


1.



Após a leitura do último quadrinho, percebe-se que há uma discrepância entre a lição aprendida por Calvin e aquela desejada por sua mãe.

Explicite as duas lições.

Responda EM PORTUGUÊS.



2.

Identifique os recursos gráficos que expressam a indignação na fala de Calvin no quadrinho.

Em seguida, explique o motivo dessa indignação.

Responda EM PORTUGUÊS.

TEXTO PARA AS PRÓXIMAS 4 QUESTÕES:

Leia o texto Human values and the design of computer technology e responda em português.


Human values and the design of computer technology

Batya Friedman


Introduction
Many of us when we design and implement computer technologies focus on making a machine work – reliably, efficiently and correctly. Rarely do we focus on human values. Perhaps we believe in value-neutral technology. Perhaps we believe that issues of value belong only to social scientists, philosophers, or policy makers. ____________In their work, system designers necessarily impart moral and social values. Yet how? What values? Whose values? For if human values – such as freedom of speech, rights to property, accountability, privacy, and autonomy – are controversial, then on what basis do some values override others in the design of, say, hardware, algorithms, and databases? Moreover, how can designers working within a corporate structure and with a mandate to generate revenue bring value-sensitive design into the workplace?
Does technology have values?
Does technology have values? ___________ About four decades ago, snowmobiles were introduced into the Inuit communities of the Arctic, and have now largely replaced travel by dog sleds. This technological innovation thereby altered not only patterns of transportation, but symbols of social status, and moved the Inuit toward a dependence on a money economy. Now

a computer example. Electronic mail rarely displays the sender’s status. Is the sender a curious lay person, system analyst, full professor, journalist, assistant professor, entry level programmer, senior scientist, high school student? Who knows until the e-mail is read, and maybe not even then. This design feature (and associated conventions) has thereby played a significant role in allowing electronic communication to cross traditional hierarchical boundaries and to contribute to the restructuring of organizations. The point is this: In various ways, technological innovations do not stand apart from human values. But, still, what would it mean to say that technology has values?

In terms of computer system design, we are not so privileged as to determine rigidly the values that will emerge from the systems we design. But neither can we abdicate responsibility.
(http://books.google.com.br. Adaptado.)

3. Quais valores humanos são apontados no primeiro parágrafo do texto?

4. Dos cinco enunciados apresentados, indique dois que completam adequada e respectivamente as duas lacunas indicadas no texto:

(1) The three arguments may be correct.

(2) Let us consider two examples.

(3) Moral and social values are not important.

(4) Neither belief is correct.

(5) One example is enough to illustrate my point.

5. Segundo o texto, ao planejar e implementar tecnologias computacionais, consideramos os valores humanos? Por quê?

6. A autora acredita que inovações tecnológicas possam ocorrer sem se considerar os valores humanos? Se sim, qual trecho do texto essa postura da autora torna-se explícita?

TEXTO PARA AS PRÓXIMAS 3 QUESTÕES:

CAFFEINE USE COMMON IN ATHLETES



British athletes routinely use caffeine to boost their performance, say researchers.

A third of track and field athletes and 60% of cyclists reported taking caffeine before competing, a Liverpool John Moores University study found.

The drug was removed from the list of banned substances in 2004 but its use is still monitored. The study's authors said it raised concerns that athletes were exploiting caffeine to gain an advantage. [...]

Study leader Dr Neil Chester said the World Anti-Doping Agency had not been clear about why caffeine had been removed from the list but he understood it was because it was too hard to distinguish between normal social use and abuse of the drug.

A total of 480 athletes were questioned for the study, through athletics or cycling clubs and at sporting events. They reported using caffeine in the form of energy drinks, sports supplements, pills and coffee, the International Journal of Sports Medicine reported.

1Elite athletes were more likely to use caffeine to improve their performance than those who took part in sport recreationally.

Dr Chester said caffeine had been shown to be beneficial for endurance events and would also increase the alertness of athletes. He added that the fairly recent introduction of caffeine to energy and sports drinks had increased the opportunity for athletes to consume the drug in high doses.

"There's been a lack of communication from WADA and there is a question about whether or not sporting authorities are condoning its use," he said.

(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7525275.stm, access on July 31, 2008)


7. O que pode ser alegado como motivo para a retirada da cafeína pela WADA da lista de substâncias proibidas no esporte?

Responda em PORTUGUÊS.

8. Considerando a comparação feita na referência 1, indique a que se referem as seguintes palavras:

a) their;

b) those.

Responda em INGLÊS.

9. Por que a decisão de retirada da cafeína pela WADA da lista de substâncias proibidas no esporte está causando polêmica nos meios desportivos enfocados no texto?

Responda em PORTUGUÊS.

TEXTO PARA AS PRÓXIMAS 3 QUESTÕES:

LINGUA FRANCA

Offshore English

Without a doubt, English is the lingua franca of global business. But oddly, native speakers are at a disadvantage when it comes to brokering deals in their mother tongue. Foreign clients, confused by Anglophone colloquialisms, often prefer to work with other non-native speakers. In order to combat this trend, London's Canning School teaches "offshore English" to future CEOs* looking to clean up their language when working abroad.

Offshore English consists of 1,500 or so of the most common English words. It emerged in the 1990s as european and Asian firms saw their international fortunes rise, and it's proved a hit at Canning, where offshore-English course enrollment has doubled in the past decade.

So what do these classes teach? Mainly, what to avoid: no idioms (say "make every possible effort" instead of "pull out all the stops"). [...] Use Latin-based words ("obtain") instead of those with Germanic roots ("get"). By the end of class, your vocabulary may be poorer, but your company's prospects will be all the wealthier.

*CEO = chief executive officer

- Christopher Werth

(NEWSWEEK International, May 5, 2008:7)

10. Que dificuldade surpreendente tem sido vivenciada por executivos/empresários em âmbito internacional?

Responda em PORTUGUÊS.

11. Transcreva do texto um marcador discursivo e uma expressão verbal que denotam finalidade/objetivo.

Responda em INGLÊS.

12. Cite duas orientações do curso oferecido pela Canning School para minimizar essa dificuldade.

Responda em PORTUGUÊS.

TEXTO PARA A PRÓXIMA QUESTÃO:

FAVELA TOURS

Staying Among the Have-Nots

Travelers seek out neighborhoods they once shunned.

By Mac Margolis | NEWSWEEK



From the magazine issue dated May 26, 2008

As first violinist for the acclaimed London Mozart Players, David Juritz gets around. Thanks to his work as a soloist and on the soundtracks of such films as The Last King of Scotland and the Harry Potter series, he has seen a fair patch of the world, and grown used to bedding down in "some posh places," as he puts it. But few accommodations have impressed him like the Maze, a small bed-and-breakfast in Rio de Janeiro. "The atmosphere was fantastic and the views unbelievable," he says. "It's probably the best place I ever stayed in."

Don't bother looking it up in the Michelin Guide. The Maze is a 20-room-plus (it keeps growing) hostel sprouting from the crown of a favela, one of the many chockablock shantytowns that cling to Rio's mountains.

The impossible jumble of raw brick and cement buildings offends the laws of gravity, not to mention the sensibilities of upscale Cariocas, 1as the city's residents are called. But for moneyed gringos eager to escape the crush and clichés of mass travel, the setting couldn't be more appealing.

And it's not just in Brazil. Slum tours are the travel business's new growth industry. Whether it's in a Mumbai shantytown or the alleys of Moscow, a Mexican garbage dump or the blighted townships of Johannesburg, foreign travelers are spending time in neighborhoods 2they long avoided.

(http://www.newsweek.com/id/137488)


13. Transcreva os termos a que referem:

a) a expressão "as the city's residents are called" (ref. 1);

b) o pronome "they" (ref. 2).

Responda em INGLÊS.



14. O primeiro cartum a seguir foi escrito por Don Wright e publicado, em 04 de maio de 2006, no jornal "The Palm Beach Post". O segundo, também publicado em um jornal norte-americano ("Orlando Sentinel", 27/03/2007), é de autoria de Dana Summers. Leia-os e responda à questão.

a) O que o personagem do cartum (1) quer fazer no que se refere aos imigrantes e por que ele acha impossível fazê-lo?

b) No cartum (2), o personagem argumenta a favor de uma política contrária à entrada de imigrantes ilegais nos Estados Unidos. Qual seria, segundo o cartunista, a consequência dessa política?

15. Leia os cartões a seguir e responda à questão.



a) Qual é a profissão de Peter O'Connor e em que país ele trabalha?

b) Que tipo de atividade profissional exerce Kalid Al Naimi e em que região do mundo ele atua?

16. Escrito por D.H. Lawrence, o poema a seguir foi publicado, em 1929, no livro "Pansies: Poems" (Londres: Martin Secker).

Leia-o e responda à questão.

RELATIVITY

I like relativity and quantum theories

because I don't understand them

and they make me feel as if space shifted

about like a swan that can't settle,

refusing to sit still and be measured;

and as if the atom were an impulsive thing

always changing its mind.

a) Que teorias Lawrence menciona em seu poema?

b) De que modo, a partir das teorias mencionadas, o poeta imagina o átomo?

TEXTO PARA AS PRÓXIMAS 3 QUESTÕES:

GLOBISH
It happens all the time: during an airport delay the man to the left, a Korean perhaps, starts talking to the man opposite, who might be Colombian, and soon they are chatting away in what seems to be English. But the native English speaker sitting between them cannot understand a word.

They don't know it, but the Korean and the Colombian are speaking Globish, the latest addition to the 6,800 languages that are said to be spoken across the world. Not that its inventor, Jean-Paul Nerriere, considers it a proper language. "It is not a language, it is a tool," he says. "A language is the vehicle of a culture. Globish doesn't want to be that at all. It is a means of communication."

"The language spoken worldwide, by 88 percent of mankind, is not exactly English", Nerriere says. The main principles of Globish are a vocabulary of only 1,500 words in English (the OED lists 615,000), gestures and repetition. The point, he says, is to reach the threshold of understanding.

With many corporations imposing English as the lingua franca wherever their base, Nerriere sees a great future for Globish, which he has trademarked. Learning it by computer and practicing it by free-access telephone will make things even easier.

The fluent Globish speaker will not be understood by native English speakers. No problem: Nerriere already is preparing a Globish version [of his primer, "Parlez Globish", an attempt to codify worldspeak] in English in addition to the Italian and Spanish editions, which will be out shortly. So he is not only protecting French from invasion but he is getting Americans to become, so to speak, bilingual.

"Absolutely!" Nerriere says triumphantly. "This is the way to get Americans to learn another language."

Disponível em: Acesso em: 17 ago. 2007. [Adaptado].
Glossary

Primer = a book that contains basic instructions

OED = Oxford English Dictionary

17. How would you conceptualize the term "Globish"?

18. In your opinion, what is one positive and one negative aspect of Globish?

19. a) What seems to be a problem between a fluent Globish speaker and a native speaker of English?

b) What does Nerriere point as a solution to this problem?

TEXTO PARA A PRÓXIMA QUESTÃO:

O texto a seguir foi adaptado a partir de uma passagem do artigo Billie Holiday, de Charles E. Smith. Leia-o e responda às questões.

Billie Holiday (Eleanora Fagan Gough) was born in Baltimore, April 7, 1915, of teen-age parents who married three years later. When she says she was a woman at six she may have been thinking of other things than physical development. Her father, Clarence Holiday, was a musician who played the guitar with the McKinney's Cotton Pickers group (he'd formerly played trumpet) and who was almost always on the road. He and Billie's mother had separated when Billie was little more than a baby, so that she was, in effect, a fatherless child. And even her mother left her with relatives, to go up North in search of work. It wasn't merely that Billie had traumatic experiences - life slaps all of us around - but it slapped her viciously, when she was very young and didn't know what it was all about.

(Shapiro, N. e Hentoff, N. (orgs.), The Jazz Makers. New York: Grove, 1956.)
20. a) O que a mãe de Billie Holiday foi fazer no norte do país? Nessa ocasião, o que ela fez com a filha?

b) Segundo o autor, a vida é cruel com todos nós, mas ela foi particularmente cruel com Billie Holiday. Por quê?



Gabarito:
Resposta da questão 1:
Lição aprendida por Calvin: confiar nos pais pode fazer mal à saúde.

Lição desejada pela mãe: fumar faz mal à saúde.


Resposta da questão 2:
Recursos: o emprego do negrito na palavra "eighteen" e sinais de pontuação, tais como pontos de exclamação e de interrogação.

Calvin, não vê sentido em ter de esperar até completar 18 anos para poder comprar cigarros porque com essa idade ele já vai ter aprendido que fumar não faz bem.


Resposta da questão 3:
Os valores humanos apontados são: liberdade de expressão, direito à propriedade, dever de prestar contas, privacidade e autonomia.

Espera-se que o candidato conheça o significado das expressões, que se encontram no trecho: "... human values – such as freedom of speech, rights to property, accountability, privacy, and autonomy..."


Resposta da questão 4:
O enunciado 4 (“Neither belief is correct.” = Nenhuma das duas crenças é correta) completa adequadamente a lacuna no 1.° parágrafo do texto.

O enunciado 2 (“Let us consider two examples.” = Vamos considerar dois exemplos) completa corretamente a lacuna no 2.° parágrafo do texto.

Sendo que os dois exemplos seriam como seguem:

1.° exemplo: About four decades...

2.° exemplo: Now a computer example. Electronic mail.
Espera-se que o candidato seja capaz de compreender as passagens, sabendo identificar os trechos que estão faltando.
Resposta da questão 5:
Segundo o texto, ao planejar e implementar tecnologias computacionais, raramente focamos em valores humanos.

Isso ocorre talvez porque acreditamos em tecnologia isenta de valores, e que questões relacionadas a valores pertençam apenas aos cientistas sociais, aos filósofos e àqueles que fazem política.

A resposta encontra-se no trecho: " Rarely do we focus on human values. Perhaps we believe in value-neutral technology. Perhaps we believe that issues of value belong only to social scientists, philosophers, or policy makers."
Resposta da questão 6:
Segundo a autora, de muitas formas, as inovações tecnológicas não estão separadas dos valores humanos, mas, embora não possamos determinar rigidamente os valores que emergem dos sistemas computacionais por nós desenvolvidos, não podemos abdicar dessa responsabilidade.

Compreendemos a resposta nos trechos: "...In various ways, technological innovations do not stand apart from human values. … In terms of computer system design, we are not so privileged as to determine rigidly the values that will emerge from the systems we design. But neither can we abdicate responsibility."


Resposta da questão 7:
O fato de ser difícil distinguir o consumo social da cafeína de seu uso abusivo como droga.
Resposta da questão 8:
a) Elite athletes.

b) Athletes.


Resposta da questão 9:
Porque suspeita-se que muitos atletas (britânicos) estejam usando a cafeína para melhorar seu desempenho (especialmente no ciclismo e atletismo).
Resposta da questão 10:
Os executivos/empresários que são falantes nativos de inglês estão em desvantagem para fechar negócios, em sua língua materna, com não falantes.
Resposta da questão 11:
- In order to.

- Looking for.


Resposta da questão 12:
Duas das seguintes respostas:

- Deve-se evitar usar coloquialismos (anglófonos).

- Deve-se evitar usar expressões idiomáticas.

- Deve-se usar palavras de origem latina (ao invés daquelas de sabe germânica).


Resposta da questão 13:
a) "Cariocas"

b) "foreign travelers"


Resposta da questão 14:
a) Ele quer reconduzir os imigrantes aos seus países de origem, contudo, acha impossível fazê-lo, pois eles não falam inglês.

b) Para o cartunista, a consequência é que caberia aos próprios americanos a incumbência de atividades menos qualificadas, tais como a construção civil, os empregos domésticos e os agrícolas.


Resposta da questão 15:
a) Peter O'Connor é editor de jornal (redator) e trabalha na Irlanda.

b) kalid Al Naimi é consultor de empresas de petróleo e atua no Oriente Médio.


Resposta da questão 16:
a) As teorias mencionadas são a da relatividade e a quântica.

b) Ele imagina o átomo como algo impulsivo e que está sempre mudando de opinião.


Resposta da questão 17:
The latest addition to the 6,800 languages that are said to be spoken across the world. It is not a language, it is a tool. It is a means of communication.
Resposta da questão 18:
The positive aspect of Globish is that it can be used in some contexts and help people to communicate their thoughts.

The negative aspect of it has to do with its very limited vocabulary range, which does not allow anyone to convey more sophisticated ideas or needs.


Resposta da questão 19:
a) The problem lies in the fact that a fluent Globish speaker will not be understood by native English speakers.

b) Nerrierre is already preparing a Globish version of his primer, "Parlez Globish", an attempt to codify worldspeak in English, in addition to the Italian and Spanish editions, which will be out shortly.


Resposta da questão 20:
a) A mãe de Billie Holiday foi em busca de emprego e, portanto, teve de deixar sua filha com os parentes.

b) De acordo com o texto, Billie Holiday teve experiências traumáticas durante sua infância.



2/8/2002 15:381


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