Higher education brazil structure of system

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Higher education is provided in federal, state, municipal, private universities and other institutions, federations and independent establishments. The establishments of higher education consist of faculties, schools, centres, academies or institutes with relatively few students which offer instruction in one or two subjects. They are mostly private.


1. The federal universities in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais and mostly the public universities supported by the São Paulo state (the Universities of São Paulo and Campinas) employ most of the active researchers in Brazil, in all fields.

2. In Brazil today, only 16 percent of academic faculty hold a doctoral degree - concentrated in a few places, such as the universities in the State of São Paulo - compared with 25 percent with M.A.s, 36 percent with some kind of specialist degree, and 22 percent with an undergraduate diploma.

3. Brazil's government spends heavily on higher education: 1.2% of GDP, compared with 0.7% in Argentina and an average of 0.9% among the richer countries of the OECD .

4. Although the total number of university places has grown by 50% since 1980, the proportion of young people in higher education is still well below the international average.

Disponível em: http: Acesso em: 29 ago. 2007. [Adaptado].


GDP = Gross Domestic Product

OECD = Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
1. a) What conclusions can you come to according to the points which are highlighted in the text?

b) What contradiction is there in the information of items 3 and 4?

2. What aspects of higher education in Brazil are dealt with in the text?



Parents have long observed that some kids go bonkers after eating foods with a lot of artificial ingredients or neon-bright colors. Medical researchers - not to mention the food industry - have been skeptical; there was no proof of this effect, at least nothing like a double-blind, controlled study.

As so often happens, however, the parents turned out to be a step ahead of the pros. A carefully designed study published in the British journal "The Lancet" shows that a variety of common food dyes and the preservative sodium benzoate - an ingredient in many soft drinks, fruit juices and salad dressings - do cause some kids to become measurably more hyperactive and distractible. The findings prompted Britain's Food Standards Agency to issue an immediate advisory to parents to limit their children's intake of additives if they notice an effect on behavior. In the U.S., there hasn't been a similar response, but doctors say it makes sense for parents to be on the alert.

The study, led by Jim Stevenson, a professor of psychology at England's University of Southampton, involved about 300 children in two age groups: 3-year-olds and 8- and 9-year-olds. Over three one-week periods, the children were randomly assigned to consume one of three fruit drinks daily: one contained the amount of dye and sodium benzoate typically found in a British child's diet, a second had a lower concentration of additives, and a third was additive-free. The children spent a week drinking each of the three mixtures, which looked and tasted alike. During each seven-day period, teachers, parents and graduate students (who did not know which drink the kids were getting) used standardized behavior-evaluation tools to size up such qualities as restlessness, lack of concentration, fidgeting and talking or interrupting too much.

Stevenson found that children in both age groups were significantly more hyperactive when drinking the beverage with higher levels of additives. Three-year-olds had a bigger response than the older kids did to the drink with the lower dose of additives, which had about the same amount of food coloring as in two 2-oz. (57 g) bags of candy. But even within each age group, some children responded strongly and others not at all.

Stevenson's team is looking at how genetic differences may explain the range of sensitivity. One of his colleagues believes that the additives may trigger a release of histamines in sensitive kids. In general, the effects of the chemicals are not so great as to cause full-blown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Still, the paper warns that "these adverse effects could affect the child's ability to benefit from the experience of school."

(Time, September 13, 2007.)

3. a) Qual a composição do grupo pesquisado por Jim Stevenson?

b) Como foi o procedimento do estudo?

4. a) Qual o assunto do texto?

b) Quais os resultados do estudo publicado pela revista britânica "The Lancet"?

5. a) De acordo com o 30. parágrafo, o que os resultados revelam?

b) O que o grupo de Stevenson está investigando a partir dos resultados?

6. a) O que fez a agência britânica que controla os alimentos a partir dos resultados?

b) Qual a consequência que os resultados tiveram nos Estados Unidos?



Entering a university is a very important and interesting experience in a person's life, but at the same time it is an experience that will change your lifestyle and personality forever. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the three main effects of entering a university which are missing old friends, learning how to survive during university, and developing responsible behavior which must accompany university studies.

The first and also the most common effect of entering a University is that once you enter the new school, you start missing your old friends. There are many reasons you and your friends start splitting apart and leaving to study in different cities or schools, but feeling sad because you miss them is inevitable. This doesn't mean you are never going to see your friends again, but it isn't the same to be at school without your best friends.

The second effect of entering a university is the fact that you have to get acquainted with the entire university environment. Being at junior high or at high school is completely different than being in a university, so you have to learn how to survive in it. During university studies you have to search for your own way to success because at a university, teachers are not going to solve your problems.

The third and most important effect of entering a university is the responsible behavior you must develop during your way through the university. Entering a university forces you to be a responsible person because you are the only one who will care about you. During university studies you are in charge of your life and of the decisions that you make such as doing or not doing homework, going or not going to class, etc. Being a responsible person is essential for anyone in this world; without responsibility a person's life can be a mess and will never reach success.

Entering a university, as everything that is new in our lives, can be terrifying at first, but with a little bit of effort, it can become one of the greatest experiences of our lives. It is very important to enjoy our university studies because it will help us become independent and responsible people, only if we learn how to survive it.

(http://www.eslbee.com/effects_of_entering_a_university.htm. Acesso em 22/11/2007)

7. Segundo o texto "The Effects of Entering a University", um aluno universitário se diferencia de um aluno do ensino médio. Em que termos ocorre essa diferença?

8. O texto "The Effects of Entering a University" afirma que a universidade força o aluno a ser responsável. O que significa, no contexto dos estudos universitários, "ser responsável"?

9. O texto "The Effects of Entering a University" discute as três principais mudanças que acontecem na vida daqueles que ingressam na universidade. Cite-as.



Is it cool to stay at home when you're an adult?

A survey by the Social Market Foundation (SMF), an independent think-tank, confirms that nearly one in four men and women aged between 20 and 30 chooses to live with their parents. Far from recklessly seeking independence, as my generation did in the late sixties, they are lured home by the prospect of financial security and being looked after, creating what the SMF calls a new trend of "lifelong parenting".

Sharon Copeland, 23, an exhibitions administrator, is typical. She left her parents' home for a year to live with a boyfriend but when the relationship broke down she returned, not out of sentiment but because she needed somewhere to live. "My mother was glad to see me return and I love it here", she says. "I live very cheaply. I give my parents 250 pounds a month all in. Mum does my ironing; I don't have to ask. As I'm saving money at the moment I can't afford to live by myself."

Most young adults who live at home have previously left and justify the move back in terms of temporary unemployment, extended study or career change. Some mention economic or emotional casualties of early relationship breakdowns, others cite the high cost of living and say that they are saving for their own property.

And they are not all without choice; most could have set up independently. Nor are the advantages flowing in only one direction: Allan, a 24-year-old Londoner, senses that his mother is dependent on his financial contribution. "I feel guilty about leaving her short of money", he says. "Economy doesn't come into it; in fact, moving out would see me slightly better off."

I think the crucial difference between my generation and its successor is that if I or my contemporaries had returned home 25 years ago, it could only have been to the role of child; and an expectation that a communal family life would continue seamlessly - interrogations, orders, grannies, hamsters, Sunday lunch et al. By contrast, the most successful of these new, all-adult families are scrupulous in respecting physical and emotional boundaries, and although those living at home invariably mentioned convenience first, they all said that they enjoyed their parents' company.

(Lizzie Speller)


10. De acordo com o texto, não há apenas uma razão para que pais e filhos vivam juntos. Estabeleça a diferença entre as situações vividas por Sharon e Allan.


The Death of English (LOL)

by Lily Huang

The most hotly contested controversy sparked by the text-messaging phenomenon of the past eight years is over truant letters. "Textese," a nascent dialect of English that subverts letters and numbers to produce ultra-concise words and sentiments, is horrifying language loyalists and pedagogues. And their fears are stoked by some staggering numbers: this year the world is on track to produce 2.3 trillion messages—a nearly 20 percent increase from 2007 and almost 150 percent from 2000. The accompanying revenue for telephone companies is growing nearly as fast—to an estimated $60 billion this year. In the English-speaking world, Britain alone generates well over 6 billion messages every month. People are communicating more and faster than ever, but some worry that, as textese drops consonants, vowels and punctuation and makes no distinction between letters and numbers, people will no longer know how we're really supposed to communicate. Will text messaging produce generations of illiterates? Could this—OMG—be the death of the English language?

Those raising the alarm aren't linguists. They're teachers who have had to red-pen some ridiculous practices in high-school papers and concerned citizens who believe it their moral duty to write grammar books. The latter can be quite prominent, like John Humphrys, a television broadcaster and household name in Britain, for whom texting is "vandalism," and Lynne Truss, author of "Eats, Shoots and Leaves," who actually enjoys texting so much she never abbreviates. Britain, one of the first countries where texting became a national habit, has also produced some of the most bitter anti-texting vitriol; "textese," wrote John Sutherland in The Guardian, "masks dyslexia." But linguists, if anyone is paying attention, have kept quiet on this score—until now. In a new book, Britain's most prolific linguist finally sets a few things straight.

David Crystal's "Txtng: the Gr8 Db8" (Oxford) makes two general points: that the language of texting is hardly as deviant as people think, and that texting actually makes young people better communicators, not worse. Crystal spells out the first point by marshaling real linguistic evidence. He breaks down the distinctive elements of texting language—pictograms; initialisms, or acronyms; contractions, and others—and points out similar examples in linguistic practice from the ancient Egyptians to 20th-century broadcasting. Shakespeare freely used elisions, novel syntax and several thousand made-up words (his own name was signed in six different ways). Even some common conventions are relatively newfangled: rules for using the oft-abused apostrophe were set only in the middle of the 19th century. The point is that tailored text predates the text message, so we might as well accept that ours is a language of vandals. Who even knows what p.m. stands for? ("Post meridiem," Latin for "after midday," first recorded by a lazy delinquent in 1666.)

Where the naysayers see destruction, Crystal sees growth. He believes in the same theory of evolution for language as some evolutionary biologists do for life: change isn't gradual. Monumental developments interrupt periods of stasis, always as a result of crucial external developments. The American Revolution had much greater consequences for the English language than texting has had thus far. The resulting differences between American and British English, Crystal says, are more pronounced than the differences between, say, the language of newspapers and text messages. (Interestingly, there are hardly any differences between American and British texting.)

As soon as linguists began to peer into the uproar over texting, researchers examined the effects of texting experimentally. The results disproved conventional wisdom: in one British experiment last year, children who texted—and who wielded plenty of abbreviations—scored higher on reading and vocabulary tests. In fact, the more adept they were at abbreviating, the better they did in spelling and writing. Far from being a means to getting around literacy, texting seems to give literacy a boost. The effect is similar to what happens when parents yak away to infants or read to toddlers: the more exposure children get to language, by whatever means, the more verbally skilled they become. "Before you can write abbreviated forms effectively and play with them, you need to have a sense of how the sounds of your language relate to the letters," says Crystal. The same study also found the children with the highest scores to be the first to have gotten their own cell phones.

Which doesn't let the teenager who LOLs in a term paper off the hook—but that's not so much a question of language ability as of judgment. It, too, should go the way of all slang ever inappropriately used in a classroom—rebuked with a red pen, not seized upon as a symptom of generational decline. Even if electronic communication engenders its own kind of carelessness, it's no worse than the carelessness of academic jargon or journalistic shorthand. It certainly doesn't engender stupidity. One look at the winners of text-poetry contests in Britain proves that the force behind texting is a penchant for innovation, not linguistic laziness. Electronic communication, Crystal says, "has introduced that kind of creative spirit into spelling once again." That heathen Shakespeare would have been onboard.

(HUANG, Lily. The Death of English (LOL).

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