|ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY OF ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF Sedum dendroideum
Gaspi, F.O.G1,3; Tanaka, E.E.²; Capellari Jr., L.²; Monteiro, K.M.3; Carvalho, J.E.3
1University Center Herminio Ometto of Araras, 500 Dr. Maximiliano BarutoAvenue, J. Universitário, Araras, 13607-339, Brazil.
2“Luiz de Queiroz”College of Agriculture- University of São Paulo, 11 Pádua Dias Avenue, Piracicaba, 13418-900, Brazil.
3Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas –University of Campinas, 999 Alexandre Cazelatto Street, Vila Betel, Paulínia,13081-970, Brazil.
Sedum dendroideum Moc.et Sessé ex DC. (Crassulaceae), also called “bálsamo” (balsam) in Brazil, is a succulent plant with up to a height of 1 m. [6;4], its leaves are alternate, simple, curved with 1 to 5cm in length and 1 to 2cm of width and yellow flowers. This specie is originated from Mexican semi-desertregions,which are characterized by dry tropical climate.In Brazil, thefresh leaves are used for treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers[1;6;4;2], due to its emollient and healing properties. Some studies evidenced that aqueous extract of leaves promoted a protection against gastric ulcers , and also anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in mices. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antiulcerogenic activity through ulcer-induced method by ethanol, using hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of leaf juice. The animals were divided in 8 groups with 5 eachand were tested 5 treatments: saline solution 0.9% (10mL.kg-1) as negative control; carbenoxolone (200mg.kg-1) as positive control, and three doses of HE (100, 300 and 1000 mg.kg-1), and all them were orally administered. After 60 minutes, absolute ethanol 1mlwas orally administered, and animals were sacrificed 60 minutes later. Immediately after, their stomachs were removed for evaluation of ulcerative lesion index (ULI) for each animal.Theobtained data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA, p<0.05), and the means were compared by Duncan test. HE at 100, 300 and 1000mg kg-1 showed antiulcer activity of 15%, 55% and 88% of ULI inhibition, respectively; while carbenoxolone decreased 90% of ULI. The formation of ulcerative lesions significantly decreased in HE 1000mg kg-1, showingactivity similar to the carbenoxolone. The results indicate that chemical compounds in the HE can be used in the treatment for peptic ulcers. Therefore, the ethnopharmacological use of this specie was proven; but further studies should be carried out to detail the action mechanism of such substances.
References:  Carlini, E.A.; Neto, J.P.; De Almeida, E.T.; Marigo, C. Úlcera por contenção em ratos: ação protetora de extrato aquoso de “bálsamo”. Estudo preliminar. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, v.42, pp.267-270, 1970. Coelho De Souza, G.; Haas, A.P.S.; Poser, G.L.V.; Schapoval, E.E.S.; Elisabetsky, E. Ethnopharmacological studies of antimicrobial remedies in the south of Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, v.90, pp.135-143, 2004. De Melo, G.O.; Malvar, D.C.; Vanderlinde, F.A.; Pires, P.A.; Côrtes, W.S.; Filho, P.G.; Muzitano, M.F.; Kaiser, C.R.; Costa, S.S. Phytochemical and pharmacological study of Sedum dendroideum leaf juice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 102, pp.217–220. 2005. Duarte, M.R.; Zaneti, C.C. Morfoanatomia de folhas de bálsamo: Sedum dendroideum Moc. et Sessé ex DC., Crassulaceae. Revista Lecta, v.20, pp.153-160, 2002. Epagri − Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina S.A. CD Plantas Medicinais. 1 CD-ROM. Versão 1.0. Itajaí, 1998.  Lorenzi, H; Souza, H.M. Plantas ornamentais no Brasil: arbustivas, herbáceas e trepadeiras. 3ª ed. Nova Odessa, SP: Plantarum, p.476, 2001.
Acknowledgements: to Prof. Emeritus Dr. Walter R. Accorsi for their invaluables cientific legacy; University of São Paulo (USP) and Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas – CPQBA/UNICAMP. Msc. Marcia Eugenia Amaral de Carvalho, for the abstract translation.